Biosynthesis of Steroid Glycosides

3.3 Biosynthesis of Steroid Glycosides

Biotransformation of steroids and cardiac glycosides (e.g., gitoxin, digitoxin) by plant cell cultures have been studied extensively and have been reviewed by Reinhard* (1974), Stohs and Rosenberg** (1975), Stohs*** (1977), and Furuya**** (1978).
However, in general the steroidal aglycones of cardioactive glycosides may be assumed to have formed as a broad based overall mechanism of steroid biogenesis as shown below:
Acetate -> Mevalonate -> Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate -> Squalene æÆSteroid
The steroidal molecule is considered to have generated with the head to tail linkage of several acetate units.
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* Reinhard, E., In Tissue Culture and Plant Science—1974, (H.E. Street Ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp.
433-459, 1974.
** Stohs S.J., and H. Rosenburg., Lloydia, 38, 181-194, 1975.
*** Stohs, S.J., ‘In plant Tissue Culture and its Biotechnological Applications’, (W. Barz, E. Reinhard and M.H.
Zenk, eds), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 142-150, 1977.
**** Fuarya, T., In ‘Frontiers of Plant Tissue Culture’, (T.a. Thorpe-ed.) The Boostore, University of Calgary, Alberta,
Canada, pp. 191-200, 1978.

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