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0 Camellia langbianensis (Gagnep.) P.H.Hô

 Camellia langbianensis (Gagnep.) P.H.Hô; Phytotaxa, Vol 480, No 1, pp 85–90

Camellia langbianensis
Camellia langbianensis
Camellia langbianensis
Camellia langbianensis (Gagnep.) P.H.Hô; Photos Truong Quang Cuong


No synonyms are recorded for this name.


QUACH VAN HOI, ROMAN V. DOUDKIN, TRUONG QUANG CUONG, LE VAN SON, LUONG VAN DUNG, SOO-YONG KIM, Shi-Xiong Yang. Rediscovery of Camellia langbianensis (Theaceae) in Vietnam. Phytotaxa, Vol 480, No 1, pp 85–90

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0 Pterocarya tonkinensis (Franch.) Dode-Tonkin Wingnut

Pterocarya tonkinensis (Franch.) Dode, Bull. Soc. Dendrol. France 67 (1929).

Pterocarya tonkinensis
Pterocarya tonkinensis
Pterocarya tonkinensis

Pterocarya tonkinensis (Franch.) Dode; Photos Tran Minh Phuong

Vietnamese name: 

Cơi bắc bộ, Lá ngón, Lá cơi, Mạy slam (Thái)

Chinese name: 

越南枫杨 yue nan feng yang

English name: 

Tonkin Wingnut

Latin name: 

Pterocarya tonkinensis (Franch.) Dode



Synonym name:

Pterocarya stenoptera var. tonkinensis Franch.


Large tree to 30 m. Bark whitish-grey, becoming fissured. Terminal buds naked. Leaves usually paripinnate, occasionally imparipinnate, to 18 cm or more; rachis wingless, sometimes ridged or sulcate, pubescent or becoming glabrous; leaflets 6–14, sessile, 9–17 × 3–7 cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, glabrous below except for hairs on midrib and larger veins, base oblique, rounded or broadly cuneate, apex acute to acuminate, margins sharply serrate; petiole 4.5–7 cm. Infructescence 13–30 cm. Nutlets rhomboid, 6–7 mm, glabrous, with narrow to linear wings 1–1.7 × 2–6 mm

Flower and fruid season: 

III-IV; 6-10 


This species is in China Southern Yunnan, perhaps also western Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan provinces. Laos Vietnam North and central. In VietNam, It found in Lai Châu, Sơn La (Sông Mã, Mộc Châu), Tuyên Quang, Phú Thọ, Hòa Bình, Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An. 


The tree grows naturally along rivers and streams throughout the mountains and midlands, at an altitude of 100-1000 m. 


Eighteen compounds were identified from the methanol extract of Pterocarya tonkinensis, including two new natural products 1 and 2: 1, pterocaryalactone; 2, pterocaryafuranone; 3, (1S, 6R)‐9‐hydroxymegastigm‐7‐en‐3‐one; 4, (S)‐dimethyl malate; 5, α‐linolenic acid; 6–8, α‐tetralones; 9, (R)‐methyl‐2‐hydroxyl‐3‐phenyl‐propanoate; 10, (E)‐4‐hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester; 11–14, diarylheptanoids, and 15–18, pentacyclic triterpenoids


Curing scabies, ringworm (Leaf). Plants are poisonous so pay attention when using.






- Ngo, Men & Han, Jae & Nguyen, Minh & Dang, Quang & Kim, Hun & Choi, Gyung. (2020). Antifungal properties of natural products from Pterocarya tonkinensis against phytopathogenic fungi. Pest Management Science. 10.1002/ps.6211.

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0 Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.

 Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 777 (1913).

Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.
Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.
Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.
Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.
Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.
Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.; Photos Jeffrey Champion

Latinh Name: 

Bulbophyllum nasica Schltr.

Synonym Name:

Bulbophyllum blumei var. longicaudatum J.J.Sm.
Bulbophyllum blumei var. pumilum J.J.Sm.
Bulbophyllum longicaudatum (J.J.Sm.) J.J.Sm.
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Pharmacognosy, known initially as materia medica, may be defined as the study of crude drugs obtained from plants, animals and mineral kingdom and their constituents. There is a historical misinformation about who created the term pharmacognosy. According to some sources, it was C. A. Seydler, a medical student at Halle, Germany, in 1815; he wrote his doctoral thesis titled Analectica Pharmacognostica. However, recent historical research has found an earlier usage of this term. The physician J. A. Schmidt (Vienna) used that one in his Lehrbuch der materia medica in 1811, to describe the study of medicinal plants and their properties. The word pharmacognosy is derived from two Latin words pharmakon, ‘a drug,’ and gignoso, ‘to acquire knowledge of ’. It means ‘knowledge or science of drugs’. 
Crude drugs are plants or animals, or their parts which after collection are subjected only to drying or making them into transverse or longitudinal slices or peeling them in some cases. Most of the crude drugs used in medicine are obtained from plants, and only a small number comes from animal and mineral kingdoms. Drugs obtained from plants consist of entire plants, whereas senna leaves and pods, nux vomica seeds, ginger rhizome and cinchona bark are parts of plants. Though in a few cases, as in lemon and orange peels and in colchicum corm, drugs are used in fresh condition, and most of the drugs are dried after collections. Crude drugs may also be obtained by simple physical processes like drying or extraction with water. Therefore, aloe is the dried juice of leaves of Aloe species, opium is the dried latex from poppy capsules and black catechu is the dried aqueous extract from the wood of Acacia catechu. Plant exudates such as gums, resins and balsams, volatile oils and fixed oils are also considered as crude drugs. 
Further drugs used by physicians and surgeons or pharmacists, directly or indirectly, like cotton, silk, jute and nylon in surgical dressing or kaolin; diatomite used in filtration of turbid liquid or gums; wax, gelatin, agar used as pharmaceutical auxiliaries of flavouring or sweetening agents or drugs used as vehicles or insecticides are used in pharmacognosy. 
Drugs obtained from animals are entire animals, as canharides; glandular products, like thyroid organ or extracts like liver extracts. Similarly, fish liver oils, musk, bees wax, certain hormones, enzymes and antitoxins are products obtained from animal sources. 
Drugs are organized or unorganized. Organized drugs are direct parts of plants and consist of cellular tissues. Unorganized drugs, even though prepared from plants are not the direct parts of plants and are prepared by some intermediary physical processes, such as incision, drying or extraction with water and do not contain cellular tissue. Thus aloe, opium, catechu, gums, resins and other plant exudates are unorganized drugs. 
Drugs from mineral sources are kaolin, chalk, diatomite and other bhasmas of Ayurveda. 
Soure: Shah and Seth. Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2010 Elsevier First Edition. A division of  Reed Elsevier India Private Limited 

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0 Phalaenopsis stuartiana Rchb.f.

Phalaenopsis stuartiana Rchb.f.; Gard. Chron. n.s., 15: 748 1881.

Phalaenopsis stuartiana
Phalaenopsis stuartiana Rchb.f.; Photo Nelson T. Geraldino

Latinh name: 

Phalaenopsis stuartiana Rchb.f.

Synonym name:

Phalaenopsis schilleriana var. alba Roebelen

Phalaenopsis schilleriana var. stuartiana (Rchb.f.) Burb.

Phalaenopsis schilleriana var. vestalis Rchb.f.

Phalaenopsis stuartiana var. bella Rchb.f.

Phalaenopsis stuartiana f. nobilis (Rchb.f.) Christenson

Phalaenopsis stuartiana var. nobilis Rchb.f.

Phalaenopsis stuartiana f. punctatissima (Rchb.f.) Christenson

Phalaenopsis stuartiana var. punctatissima Rchb.f.

Phalaenopsis stuartiana var. punctulata Linden

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