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0 Sticky Everlasting Daisy (Xerochrysum viscosum)

 Sticky Everlasting Daisy (Xerochrysum viscosum)

The Sticky Everlating Daisy is native to Victoria, New South Wales, ACT, Tasmania and Queensland. It is an opportunistic plant that often grows in disturbed areas, for example roadsides and the Victorian goldfields. This daisy has papery yellow flowerheads that are long lasting, flowering in spring through summer and sometimes into autumn. The Sticky Everlasting Daisy is both drought and frost tolerant as is a food source for native butterflies and larvae.

Soure: Indigenous plant use; A booklet on the medicinal, nutritional and technological use of indigenous plants; By Zena Cumpston; Clean Air and Urban Landscapes (CAUL) Hub in Melbourne 2020 

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0 New species, Bulbophyllum trongquyetii (Orchidaceae) from Vietnam

Article 

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.464.4.3 

PHYTOTAXA 

New species, Bulbophyllum trongquyetii (Orchidaceae) from Vietnam

BA VUONG TRUONG1,2,6*, LEONID V. AVERYANOV3,7, ROLAND AMSLER4,8, VAN CANH NGUYEN5,9, HOP 

TRAN1,10, TATIANA V. MAISAK3,11 & VAN SON DANG1,2,12 

1 Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay District, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

2 Institute of Tropical Biology Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 85 Tran Quoc Toan, District 3, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 3 Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Popov Street 2, 197376, St. Petersburg, Russia.

4 Swiss–Orchid–Garden, Untermattstrasse 27, 8370, Sirnach, Switzerland.

5 Institute of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, No. 6, Tran Van On Street, Phu Hoa Ward, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh DuongProvince, Vietnam.

6 bavuong2019@yahoo.com; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3452-8455

7 av_leonid@mail.ru; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8031-2925

8 ra-orchid@gmx.ch; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5574-5374

9 nguyenvancanh@gmail.com; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9578-0342

10 tranhop1938@gmail.com; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5527-5675

11 tmaisak@mail.ru; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5919-6755

12 dvsonitb@gmail.com; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8681-4141

*Author for correspondence 

Abstract 

Bulbophyllum trongquyetii is described as new for science from Vietnam. Detailed morphological description, illustration, data on distribution, and phenology are provided. Described species resembles B. nipondhii but differs in the bigger size of plant, longer inflorescence, and uniform yellow or reddish-orange flowers. It can be also compared with B. thaiorum and B. farreri but easily distinguished by the bigger size of plant and flowers, as well as smooth or sparsely papillose lateral sepals. 

Keywords: 

Bulbophyllum, endemism, eastern Indochina, plant diversity, plant taxonomy 

Introduction 

The genus Bulbophyllum Thouars (1822, t. 3) is recognized as one of the largest genera of Orchidaceae, comprising over 2200 species, distributed globally in the tropics and subtropics (Chen & Vermeulen 2009, Pridgeon et al. 2014). At present, there are 145 species of the genus in 16 sections known from Vietnam, constituting, one of the largest genera in the orchid family in Vietnam (Averyanov & Averyanova 2003, Averyanov et al. 2016, Truong & Sridith 2016, Averyanov et al. 2017, Nguyen & Averyanov 2017, Averyanov et al. 2018, Truong et al. 2019a, b, c, Averyanov et al. 2019a, b). However, the inventory of Bulbophyllum species in Vietnam is far from complete, because of many species are miniature epiphytes, which inhabit canopies of tall trees and difficult to observe or even to collect. Future field researches in remote mountain areas of the country will certainly provide many more new findings. 

New species was found on small fallen branches of tall tree in Dak Koi Commune, Kon Ray District, Kon Tum Province and was latter cultivated in the private orchid garden of Mr. Phan Trong Quyet in Da Lat Town (Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam). During anthesis, it was recognized and described as a species new for science after careful study of available taxonomic literature (list references consulted) and herbarium specimens housed in different Herbaria, i.e. VNM, VNMN, as well as specimen images presented in on-line resources like JSTOR, LE, K and P. 

The new species, B. trongquyetii, belongs to the section Cirrhopetalum (Lindley 1830: 58) Reichenbach (1861: 259), which are usually characterized by 1-leaved pseudobulbs; subumbellate inflorescences arising from the base of pseudobulbs; dorsal sepal free, entire, erose, ciliate, or paleate; lateral sepals much longer than dorsal sepal, twisted at the base and more or less connate along their margins; labellum simple, entire (Pridgeon et al. 2014). 

Materials and methods 

The measurements and description of new species were based on living plants. Voucher specimens and additional alcohol-preserved material are stored at VNM herbarium (ITB – Ho Chi Minh City). Terminology for the morphological description follows Beentje (2012). 

Taxonomic treatment 

Bulbophyllum trongquyetii Vuong, Aver., R.Amsler, & V.S.Dang, sp. nov. (Figs. 1 & 2) 

TYPE:

—VIETNAM. 8 March 2020, Truong Ba Vuong, Nguyen Van Canh, Ngo Quang Dang, BV 546 (holotype VNM00023650!) prepared from plants cultivated by Mr. Phan Trong Quyet in Da Lat Town (Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam) and originated from Dak Koi Commune, Kon Ray District, Kon Tum Province, southern Vietnam. 

Etymology:

—The species is named after Mr. Phan Trong Quyet, an orchid enthusiast who cultivated and collected materials used for the preparation of the type specimen. 

Description:

—Epiphytic herb, rhizomatous, creeping, glabrous. Rhizome rigid, 2 mm in diameter, covered with brown sheaths. Pseudobulbs dark green, narrowly ovoid 2.5–2.8 cm long, 1–1.5 cm apart on the rhizome. Leaves solitary, narrowly elliptic to elliptic, adaxially green, abaxially dull purple with prominent mid keel, 7–8 cm long, 1.5–2 cm wide, apex retuse to blunt; petiole twisted, 8–10 mm long. Inflorescence subumbellate, peduncle slender, arising from the base of pseudobulbs, bearing 6–10 flowers, ca. 6 cm long, with 2 to 3 tubular acuminate sterile sheaths 4–6 mm long; floral bracts acuminate, 3–4 mm long; pedicel with ovary 8–9 mm long. Flowers uniformly yellow or reddish-orange, opening simultaneously. Dorsal sepal narrowly ovate, ca. 5 mm long, 2 mm wide, concave at base, 3-veined, apex blunt to round, sparsely papillose; lateral sepals glabrous or sparsely papillose, 3.2–3.3 cm long, 2 mm wide (broadest at base), adnate to column foot at the base, twisted, with median keel from base; upper margin connate up to the tip, lower margin connate along 2/3 from the apex. Petals ovate, slightly oblique, 3.7–4 mm long, apex roundish, 3-veined. Lip simple, entire, glabrous, canaliculate, narrowly ovoid to pyramidal, 3–3.5 mm long, 1–1.5 mm wide, apex blunt to obtuse, recurved, margin somewhat revolute at middle; abaxially with 2 low keels running from base to apex. Column (including stelidia) ca. 2 mm tall; upper margin with minute obtuse tooth, frontal margin with insignificant lateral wings, stelidia filiform subulate; column foot upcurved, with 2 insignificant lateral wing at apex; stigma obscurely rectangular; anther cap yellow brown, hemispheric, ca. 0.8 mm in diameter, rough at margin; pollinia 4. 

Phenology:

—Flowering in March–July. 

Habitat:

—Epiphyte in canopies of medium-sized and tall trees (mostly species of Fagaceae family) in open mixed forests at elevation 1000–1100 m. 

Distribution:

—Southern Vietnam, provinces Kon Tum (Kon Ray District) and Quang Nam (Nam Giang District). Endemic. 

Additional specimens studied (paratypes):—VIETNAM, Quang Nam Province, Nam Giang District, Song Thanh Nature Reserve, mixed forest, near river, elev. 1070 m. 2.05.2019, Nuraliev M.S., Kuznetsov A.N., Kuznetsova S.P., 2468 (LE01058722, http://en.herbariumle.ru/?t=occ&id=9375). VIETNAM, Herbarium specimen was prepared in 8 July 2019 by Truong Ba Vuong, Dang Van Son, Ngo Quang Dang, BV 365 (VNM00023646), from plants cultivated by Mr. Phan Trong Quyet in Da Lat Town (Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam) and originated from Dak Koi Commune, Kon Ray District, Kon Tum Province, southern Vietnam. VIETNAM, Herbarium specimen was prepared in 25 May 2020 by Truong Ba Vuong, Ngo Quang Dang, BV 627 (VNM00023884), from plants cultivated by Mr. Ngo Quang Dang in Da Lat City (Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam) and originated from Dak Koi Commune, Kon Ray District, Kon Tum Province, Southern Vietnam. VIETNAM, Herbarium specimen was prepared in 6 April 2020 by Truong Ba Vuong, Ngo Quang Dang, BV 658 (VNM00023645), from plants cultivated by Mr. Phan Trong Quyet in Da Lat City (Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam) and originated from Dak Koi Commune, Kon Ray District, Kon Tum Province, Southern Vietnam, flowers reddish yellow-orange, different color form from type specimen. 

Notes:

—Bulbophyllum trongquyetii is morphologically close to B. nipondhii Seidenfaden (1985: 162) (photo LE01087024, http://en.herbariumle.ru/?t=occ&id=18119, LE01087028, http://en.herbariumle.ru/?t=occ&id=18123), but differs in larger petiolate leaves, up to 7.5 cm long, 2 cm wide (vs. sessile leaves, ca. 2.5 cm long, 0.6 cm wide), longer inflorescence up to 6 cm long (vs. inflorescence 3.5 cm long), floral bract shorter than pedicel with ovary (vs. floral bracts slightly longer pedicel with ovary); lateral sepals 3.3 cm long (vs. lateral sepals 1.8–2 cm long); lip shallowly channeled (vs. deeply channeled); stelidia with small tooth above (vs. stelidia without tooth). In addition, the flowers color in new species is uniformly yellow or reddish-orange (vs. dorsal sepal and petals with purple stripes, lateral sepals and lip purple). New species is also close to B. thaiorum J.J.Smith (1912: 28), studied on the base of following specimens: “no location, s.coll., s.n.” (type, K000891066, http://specimens.kew.org/herbarium/K000891066) and “VIETNAM, Kon Tum Province, Ngoc Linh Peak, 07.03.1995, L.V. Averyanov et al., VH 569” (LE01057956, http://en.herbariumle.ru/?t=occ&id=8458, P00362004, https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/ p00362004), but differs in pseudobulbs 2.5–2.8 cm long (vs. pseudobulbs 2 cm long), leaves 7–7.5 cm long, 1.5–2 cm wide (vs. leaves 4 cm long, 0.7–0.8 cm wide), the floral bract 3–4 mm long, twice shorter than pedicel and ovary, pedicel and ovary 8–9 mm long (vs. floral bracts 6–7 mm long, as long as pedicel and ovary or little shorter, pedicel and ovary 6–7 mm long), lateral sepals glabrous or sparsely papillose at base (vs. lateral sepals densely hispid- papillose), lateral sepals ca. 3.3 cm long, connate along their apical third (vs. lateral sepals 2–2.5 cm long, in apical part free). Additionally, the new species bear similarity with B. farreri w.w.Smith (1921: 196) Seidenfaden (1974: 212). Studied specimens: “CHINA, Farrer, R. s.n.” (syntype, E00383625, http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/E00383625), “MYANMAR, 17 May 1914, Kingdon-Ward Francis, 1560” (syntype, E00745700, http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/ E00745700), “VIETNAM, Lam Dong Province, Da Lat Town area, 12.03.1997, Averyanov L. s.n.” (LE01055508, http://en.herbariumle.ru/?t=occ&id=7264, LE01073537, http://en.herbariumle.ru/?t=occ&id=18046), “VIETNAM, Lam Dong Province, Da Lat City, 11 April, 2020, Truong Ba Vuong, Ngo Quang Dang BV 574” (VNM 00023885), “VIETNAM, Lam Dong Province, Da Lat City, 21 April, 2020, Truong Ba Vuong, Ngo Quang Dang BV 659” (VNM 00023647), “VIETNAM, Lam Dong Province, Da Lat City, 5 May, 2020, Truong Ba Vuong, Ngo Quang Dang BV 631” (VNM 00023886), but can be recognized by the lateral sepals glabrous or sparsely papillose (vs. lateral sepals densely papillose), lateral sepals rounded at apex (vs. lateral sepals acute), flowers uniform yellow or reddish-orange (vs. flowers red, orange or brownish). See Table 1. 

TAblE 1. Morphological comparison of Bulbophyllum trongquyetii, B. nipondhii, B. thaiorum, and B. farreri. 

Morphological comparison of Bulbophyllum trongquyetii, B. nipondhii, B. thaiorum, and B. farreri.

Acknowledgments 

Field and laboratory studies were supported by Herbarium of Institute of Tropical Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, the work on the publication was supported in part by the RFBR “Inventory, taxonomy and geography of the orchids (Orchidaceae) of Vietnam”, 20-04-00339 А. 

Bulbophyllum trongquyetii

FIGURE 1. Bulbophyllum trongquyetii. A. Flowering plant; B. Leaves; C. Inflorescence at different views; D. Portion of inflorescence; E. Flower, ovary and pedicel at different views; F. Proximal portion of flower at different views; G. Flower with sepals removed, side view; H. Lateral sepals; I. Dorsal sepal; J. Petals; K. Lip at different views; L. Column and ovary at different views; M. Anther cap at different views; N. Pollinia at different views. Photos by Truong Ba Vuong taken from the type specimen; correction and design by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak. 

Bulbophyllum trongquyetii

FIGURE 2. Bulbophyllum trongquyetii with reddish yellow-orange color form specimens BV 658 (VNM00023645). Photo by Nguyen Van Canh. 

References 

Averyanov, L.V. & Averyanova, A.L. (2003) Updated checklist of the orchids of Vietnam. National University Publishing House, Hanoi. 102 pp. 

Averyanov, L.V., Truong, B.V. & Maisak, T.V. (2019b) Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Vietnam III. The revision of B. sect. Lemniscata. Phytotaxa 416 (1): 51–58.

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.416.1.6 

Averyanov, L.V., Nguyen, S.K., Nong, V.D., Nguyen, V.C., Truong, B.V. & Maisak, T.V. (2017) Bulbophyllum sect. Hirtula in eastern Indochina. Taiwania 62 (1): 1–23. 

Averyanov, L.V., Nong, V.D., Nguyen, H.T., Nuraliev, M.S., Maisak, T.V. & Nguyen, C.A. (2018) New species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Vietnam. Phytotaxa 369 (1): 1–14.

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.369.1.1 

Averyanov, L.V., Nguyen, S.K., Truong, B.V., Nguyen, V.C., Maisak, T.V., Tran, H.T., Pham, T.T.D. & Tu, B.N. (2019a) New species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Vietnam II. Phytotaxa 404 (6): 231–244. 

NEw SPECIES, BULBOPHyLLUM TRONGQUyeTII Phytotaxa 464 (4) © 2020 Magnolia Press • 297 

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.404.6.2

Averyanov, L.V., Nong, V.D., Nguyen, S.K., Maisak, T.V., Nguyen, V.C., Phan, Q.T., Nguyen, P.T., Nguyen, T.T. & Truong, B.V. (2016) 

New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae) in the Flora of Vietnam. Taiwania 61 (4): 319–354.

Beentje, H. (2012) The Kew Plant Glossary, an illustrated dictionary of plant terms (revised edition). Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Publishing.

Lindley, J.D. (1830–1840) The genera and species of orchidaceous plants. Ridgways, London, 554 pp. 

https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.499

Nguyen, H.T. & Averyanov, L.V. (2017) Two endangered ornamental orchid species, Bulbophyllum coweniorum and esmeralda bella 

(Orchidaceae), new in the flora of Vietnam. Turczaninowia 20 (1): 68–74. https://doi.org/10.14258/turczaninowia.20.1.5

Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.w. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014) Bulbophyllum. In: Genera orchidacearum, vol. 6, epidendroideae (part 3). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 544 pp.

Reichenbach, H.G. (1861) Subclassis VIII. Gynandrae Endl. Annales botanices systematicae 6: 167–933. Reichenbach, H.G. (1869) New Plants. The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette: 1182.

Rolfe, R.A.R. (1908) New orchids: Decade 32. Bulletin Miscellaneous Information: 70. https://doi.org/10.2307/4113217

Smith, J.J. (1912) Bulbophyllum Thou. Sect. Cirrhopetalum. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, sér. 2, 8: 28.

Truong, B.V. & Sridith, K. (2016) The phytogeographic note on the orchids flora of Vietnam: a case study from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Central Vietnam. Taiwania 61 (2): 127–140.

Truong, B.V., Vermeulen, J.J. & Truong, Q.T. (2019a) A new record of Bulbophyllum section Aeschynanthoides from Vietnam. 

Lankesteriana 19 (1): 1–4. https://doi.org/10.15517/lank.v19i1.36164

Truong, B.V., Truong, Q.T., Ponert, J. & Vermeulen, J.J. (2019b) New Species of Bulbophyllum from Hon Ba Nature Reserve In Vietnam. 

Die Orchidee 5 (6): 44–51.Truong, B.V., Truong, Q.T., Bui, V.H. & Cootes, J. (2019c) Bulbophyllum claviforme, a new speciesfrom Vietnam. Die Orchidee 5 (7): 52–59.

Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.w. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014) Bulbophyllum. In: Genera Orchidacearum vol. 6, Epidendroideae (part three). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 4–51.

Seidenfaden, G. (1973) Notes on Cirrhopetalum Lindl. Danks Botanonosk Arkiv 29: 1–260.

Seidenfaden, G. (1985) Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand XI. Nordic Journal of Botany 5: 157–167. 

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.1985.tb02085.x 

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0 Two new species of Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae) from Cambodia and Lao PDR

 European Journal of Taxonomy 712: 1–15 ISSN 2118-9773 https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.712 www.europeanjournaloftaxonomy.eu 2020 · Insisiengmay O. et al. 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0). 

Research article 

Two new species of Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae) from Cambodia and Lao PDR 

Oudomphone INSISIENGMAY1,*, Mark Fleming NEWMAN2 & Thomas HAEVERMANS 3 

1,3 Institut de Systématique Évolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Université des Antilles, Sorbonne Université, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 39, 75005 Paris, France.

1 Cabinet of the Lao Academy of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, 100 Building, Na Haidiew Village, Chanthabouly District, Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR.

2 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, Scotland, UK. 

* Corresponding author: Oudomphone_ins@most.gov.la or oudomphone.insisiengmay@mnhn.fr 2 Email: mnewman@rbge.org.uk

3 Email: thomas.haevermans@mnhn.fr 

Abstract. Two new species of Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae), Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. and Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov., from Cambodia and Lao PDR are described and illustrated. Morphological similarities to their closely related taxa are discussed. Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. is compared with Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa in its vegetative parts, but distinguished by the following characters: whole plant taller, leaf sheath and young shoot apex green, petiole absent. It differs from Kaempferia rotunda L. in its floral parts by the following characters: presence of peduncle, floral tube longer, labellum purple with white line at centre, anther crest obovate, bifid, apex irregularly rounded and ovary glabrous. Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. is compared with Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa. Proposed IUCN conservation assessments are also given: Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. occurs in disturbed, open forest and is assessed as CR, whereas Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. occurs in short grassland and is assessed as EN. 

Keywords. Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov., Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov., Cambodia, Lao PDR. 

Insisiengmay O., Newman M.F. & Haevermans T. 2020. Two new species of Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae) from Cambodia and Lao PDR. European Journal of Taxonomy 712: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.712 

Introduction 

Kaempferia L. (Zingiberaceae, ginger family) is a genus of perennial herbs. Around 40 species are currently accepted (Mabberley 2017), although nearly 140 names are listed in the International Plant Names Index (IPNI 2020). The genus is distributed from India to southern China and Peninsular Malaysia. Several species have medicinal properties, are used in spiritual rituals, or have culinary uses (e.g., Kaempferia galanga L., known as kencur) and are widely cultivated, making it difficult to  know their natural ranges. The centre of diversity is undoubtedly in the monsoonal parts of SE Asia, particularly Thailand and its immediate neighbours. South of Thailand, the diversity drops sharply with four species reported from Peninsular Malaysia, only one or two of them native (Holttum 1950). To the north, only five species of Kaempferia extend to the tropical provinces of China, and are probably more often cultivated or naturalised than native ones (Wu & Larsen 2000). 

It has been more than a century since the publication of the most recent monograph of all species of Kaempferia (Schumann 1904), and the most recent revision of the genus in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Gagnepain 1908). Revisions of Kaempferia for the Flora of Thailand (T. Jenjittikul et al., in prep.) and in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (O. Insisiengmay et al., in prep.) are under way, and have already revealed considerably more species than were known to Gagnepain (1908) who recognised 13 species in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. In more recent accounts, nine species were recorded in Lao PDR (Newman et al. 2007), but an additional six have been described in that country in the last 12 years (Koonterm 2008; Picheansoonthon & Koonterm 2008, 2009b; Picheansoonthon 2009; Phokham et al. 2013), and more are expected from Cambodia and Vietnam. Twenty-seven species are recognised in the current draft of the Flora of Thailand revision (Ruchisansakul, pers. comm.), including 11 described in the last 9 years (Nopporncharoenkul & Jenjittikul 2017, 2018; Nopporncharoenkul et al. 2020; Phokham et al. 2013; Picheansoonthon & Koonterm 2009a; Picheansoonthon 2010, 2011; Wongsuwan et al. 2015) and at least three more are to be described. 

Many species in the genus are very poorly known taxonomically, mainly because it is so difficult to make informative specimens from these plants, which usually bear only one, extremely delicate and short-lived flower per plant each day of the flowering period. Furthermore, the inflorescence is often held between the leaves and is a complex structure of bracts, bracteoles and a number of flowers at different stages. Several species bloom at night and must be collected in darkness. Others bloom early in the rainy season, before the leaves appear, so to obtain all parts of the plant, two collections must be made a few weeks apart. Therefore, herbarium collections are often of relatively little use to the taxonomist and must be supplemented by living material. 

Morphologically, Kaempferia is distinct from other genera of Zingiberaceae. It is classified in the subfamily Zingiberoideae tribe Zingibereae which comprises genera with large, petaloid lateral staminodes, about the same size as the lip. The species of Kaempferia are small herbaceous perennial plants, some with two leaves appressed to the ground, others with erect leaves to about 70 cm tall. The strongly zygomorphic flowers consist of the usual parts found in Zingiberaceae, an inferior ovary, tubular calyx with three lobes, floral tube with three corolla lobes, a labellum, two lateral staminodes and a single fertile anther with two thecae which hold the style so that the stigma is presented just above the anther. The diagnostic character of the flowers of Kaempferia is the deeply bilobed labellum and large lateral staminodes which are often held in a single plane so that the open flower resembles, at first glance, a tetramerous, salverform flower. 

A thorough account of the history of infrageneric classification of Kaempferia is given by Kam (1980), and the correct generic name for the African species by Burtt (1982). The first classification of the species of Kaempferia into infrageneric taxa was made by Horaninow (1862) who described two taxa, Kaempferia [unranked] Soncorus and Kaempferia [unranked] Protanthium. The first of these was described as ‘flores centrales’ and the second as ‘flores praecoces, ante folia e caudice projecti’ which is to say that species in the Soncorus group produce their inflorescences terminally on the leafy shoots while those in the Protanthium group produce them early in the growing season, before the leaves, arising from the rhizome. Horaninow placed Kaempferia galanga L. with seven other species in his Soncorus group and K. rotunda L. with two other species in his Protanthium group. 

Bentham & Hooker (1883) gave Horaninow’s unranked infrageneric taxa the rank of section and added a third, Kaempferia section Stachyanthesis Benth. & Hook.f., in which they placed Kaempferia scaposa (Nimmo) Benth. (= Curcuma scaposa (Nimmo) Škorničk. & M.Sabu) and Kaempferia rosea Schweinf. ex Baker (= Siphonochilus kirkii (Hook.f.) B.L.Burtt). Baker (1890) raised these sections to subgenera and added a fourth, Kaempferia subgenus Monolophus (Wall.) Baker which is now treated as the genus Monolophus Delafosse, Guill. & Je.Kuhn. Finally, Schumann (1904) recognised 5 subgenera, adding subgenus Cienkowskia K.Schum. to contain the African species now placed in Siphonochilus. 

Since K. galanga is the type species of the genus, Kaempferia [unranked] Soncorus is illegitimate; it must be called Kaempferia [unranked] Kaempferia (Turland et al. 2018, Art. 22.2). Insisiengmay et al. (2018) were only able to locate a single element of original material of K. rotunda, and it did not match the written description in the protologue, so a proposal to conserve the name with a conserved type was made. This proposal, number 2581, has been recommended by the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants (Applequist 2020). 

During fieldwork in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in 2016 and 2017, directed towards a revision of Kaempferia in these three countries, we found additional undescribed taxa. Here, we describe two new species, Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. and Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov., the first known only in Cambodia, the second distributed in southern Lao PDR and Cambodia. We compare the morphology of these new species to closely related taxa and we also propose a conservation status of each one using IUCN criteria. 

Material and methods 

A revision of Kaempferia in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam formed part of the PhD thesis of the first author (Insisiengmay 2019). All names applied to species of Kaempferia in these and surrounding countries were examined. Protologues were gathered and specimens, including types at BK, BKF, BM, E, HNL, K, P, QBG, SING and VNM were studied. Herbarium codes follow Index Herbariorum (Thiers, continuously updated). Specimens were collected during field expeditions in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam from April to August 2016 and May to September 2017. While most collections could be determined to an existing taxon, a small number of collections did not match any herbarium material examined. Among these collections, were the specimens described as two new species below. 

Each collection included: flowers and inflorescences in ca 70% alcohol, dried herbarium specimens, rhizomes for cultivation and leaf material in silica gel for molecular systematic study. A complete set of herbarium vouchers and the living collections were deposited at the National Herbarium, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle (P). The species descriptions are based on the spirit material because dried herbarium specimens lack three-dimensional structures and undergo changes in dimensions of parts of the plants which are very important for species description. The botanical terminology follows the Kew Plant Glossary (Beentje 2016). 

IUCN conservation assessments of both species have been made using the Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red list categories and Criteria ver. 3.1 (2012) and ver. 13 (2017). 

Results 

Description of new species

Diagnosis 

Order Zingiberales Griseb.

Family Zingiberaceae Martinov Subfamily Zingiberoideae

Tribe Zingibereae Meisn.

Genus Kaempferia L.

Subgenus Kaempferia L. (= Soncorus Horan.) 

Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77211164-1 Figs 1–3, Tables 1–2 

A species of Kaempferia subg. Kaempferia. Vegetative parts similar to K. larsenii by the shape of the leaf blade which is glabrous, parallel-veined and erect but may be distinguished by the following characters: whole plant taller, leaf sheath and young shoot apex green, petiole absent, the flower of Kaempferia nemoralis sp. nov. is completely different from that of K. larsenii in orientation, colour and size. 

Kaempferia nemoralis

Fig. 1. Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. in natural habitat. Photograph: Oudomphone Insisiengmay. 4 

Table 1. Comparison of the vegetative parts of Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa and Kaempferia nemoralis 

Comparison of the vegetative parts of Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa and Kaempferia nemoralis

Table 2. Comparison of the floral parts of Kaempferia rotunda L. and Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. 

Comparison of the floral parts of Kaempferia rotunda L. and Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov.

Inflorescences and flowers similar to those of K. rotunda (Kaempferia subg. Protanthium) by the presence of white staminodes and size of labellum but distinguished by the following characters: presence of peduncle, floral tube longer, 95 mm long (vs 50–55 mm long in K. rotunda), labellum purple with white line at centre, anther crest obovate, bifid, apex irregularly rounded and ovary glabrous, the vegetative parts differ by the shape and indumentum of the leaf blade, and absence of a petiole. 

Etymology 

The specific epithet is from the Latin ‘nemoralis’, meaning ‘of woods’. The only known locality is in open forest near a small stream. 

Material examined 

Type 

CAMBODIA • Prov. Kratié, Dist. Snuol, Sre Roneam Village, Khseum commune; 12°17′ N, 106°25′ E; alt. 74 m; O. Insisiengmay et al. OI 234; 9 Jul. 2017; holotype: P (dried and spirit coll.); isotype: E (spirit coll. only). 

Kaempferia nemoralis

Fig. 2. Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. A. Whole plant. B. Flower dissected. C. Bract and bracteoles. D. Calyx. E. Calyx apex (back view). F. Calyx apex (front view) (dorsal corolla lobe side). G. Floral tube with stamen attached. H. Anther. I. Ovary and epigynous glands. J. Ovary cross section. K. Ligule. Drawing from the type material by Agathe Haevermans (O. Insisiengmay et al. OI 234 ). 

Description 

Perennial herb, 8–20 cm tall. Rhizome short, horizontal; roots of two kinds; tuberous, 10–15 × 3–5 mm, and filamentous. Most individuals with one or two flowering shoots. Leaves 2 with 2 leafless sheaths, green; ligule a very small rim at junction of sheaths and blade, < 1 mm long, glabrous. Longest leaf blade 200 × 20 mm, oblong, erect, base attenuate, apex attenuate, glabrous, petiole absent. Inflorescence terminal, peduncle 5 mm long, flowers 1–3. Bracts narrowly elliptic to ensiform, villose, 35 × 7 mm, hyaline, subtending one flower; bracteoles 2 per flower, opposite, narrowly elliptic to ensiform, largest one 27 × 5 mm, diminishing to 25 × 2.2 mm, hyaline, villose. Calyx tubular, 50 × 3 mm (not flattened), apex with two longer teeth dorsally, greenish and translucent, glabrous and ciliate at apex; floral tube 95×3mm (not flattened), glabrous, white; dorsal corolla lobe linear-acuminate, 45×5mm, white, glabrous, apex with 5mm long mucro; lateral corolla lobes linear-acuminate, 40×4mm, white, glabrous, apex acute; lateral staminodes oblong, 40×12mm, white, glabrous; labellum obcordate, 47 × 22 mm, purple with white line at the centre, apex bifid, incision 15 mm, lobes narrowly oblong, emarginate; stamen: filament 10 mm long, thecae 5 mm long, dehiscing by longitudinal slits throughout their length, crest obovate, 10 × 6 mm, bifid, incision 6 mm deep, apex of sublobes irregularly rounded, white, glabrous; epigynous glands 2, colourless, subulate, 12–13 mm long; ovary ovoid, 8 × 3.5 mm, glabrous, trilocular with axile placentation, ovules 3–10 per locule, 1 × 0.5 mm; stigma 1.5 mm long, obcuneiform, curved longitudinally, ostiole ciliate. Fruit unknown. 

Distribution and habitat 

Only known from the type locality where the plants were found growing in dry dipterocarp forest, near a stream, in moist, sandy soil at low altitude, 74 m. 

Distribution of Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. (●) and Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. (

Fig. 3. Distribution of Kaempferia nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. (●) and Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. (▲). Type locality of Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. (▲). 

Conservation status 

Proposed IUCN conservation status: CR. AOO = 4 km2, this species is known only from the type locality which is near a path at the edge of a village where tractors and herds of cattle pass frequently. The area is not protected by law. The number of mature individuals is less than 20. 

Notes 

Other species of Kaempferia, not yet determined, were also collected at the type locality of Kaempferia nemoralis sp. nov. These species clearly differ from Kaempferia nemoralis sp. nov. by having their leaves flat on the ground and by a number of characters of the floral parts. 

A high-resolution image of the type specimen will be deposited at RUPP, the National Herbarium of Cambodia. Normally, a type specimen would be deposited in the country of origin, but there is very little type material of Kaempferia nemoralis sp. nov. and no paratypes, so it has been agreed with the curator of RUPP that it is better to keep the types at E and P where the conditions for long-term conservation, especially of spirit material, are much better. 

The collections at the herbaria listed in Material and methods were searched thoroughly, but no material of Kaempferia nemoralis sp. nov. was discovered. 

Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77211165-1 Figs 4–5, Table 3 

Diagnosis 

Belonging to Kaempferia subg. Kaempferia and most similar to K. larsenii by its habit, size around 6–10 cm tall, leaf blade erect, similar in shape, parallel-veined and glabrous but distinguished by the following characters: leaf sheath and young shoot apex green, staminodes white, labellum white with purple patch, crest flabellate, apex bifid, irregularly rounded, white. 

Etymology 

This species epithet is derived from the Latin ‘pascuorum’ (of pastures), referring to their habitat. Material examined 

Type 

LAO PDR • Prov. Champassak, Dist. Khong, Cambodian-Laotian border; 13°56′ N, 106°1′ E; alt. 84 m; O. Insisiengmay et al. OI. 116; 16 Jun. 2016; holotype: HNL (dried coll. only); isotypes: E (dried coll. only), P (dried and spirit coll.), RUPP (dried coll. only). 

Additional material 

CAMBODIA • Prov. Stung Treng, Dist. Siem Pang, Siem Pang Village, Sekong Commune; 14°6′ N, 106°22′ E; alt. 71 m; O. Insisiengmay et al. OI. 237; 10 Jul. 2017; P (dried and spirit coll.), RUPP (dried coll. only). 

LAO PDR • Champassak Province, Khong District; 14°5′ N, 105°52′ E; alt. 97 m; O. Insisiengmay et al. OI. 112; 17 Jun. 2016; P (spirit coll. only) • Mounlapamok District, Nong Nga village, Thong Nong Phue; 14°22′ N, 105°30′ E; alt. 107 m; V. Lamxay et al. VL1881; 10 Jun. 2009; E, Natl. Univ. Laos, Fac. Science, SING, VNM. 

Table 3. Morphological comparison of Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa and Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. 

Morphological comparison of Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa and Kaempferia pascuorum Insis.

Kaempferia pascuorum in natural habitat

Fig. 4. Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. in natural habitat. Photograph: Oudomphone Insisiengmay. 

Kaempferia pascuorum

Fig. 5. Kaempferia pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. A. Whole plant. B. Leaves. C. Ligule. D. Flower. E. Flower dissected. F. Floral tube with anther attached. G. Anther crest from above. H. Stamen and stigma. I. Calyx. J–K. Apex of calyx from two different views. L. Bract. M–N. Bracteoles. O. Ovary and epigynous glands. Drawing from the type material by Agathe Haevermans (O. Insisiengmay et al. OI. 116). 

Description 

Perennial herb, 6–10 cm tall. Rhizome short, horizontal; roots of two kinds, tuberous, ca 6–10 × 3–5 mm, and filamentous. Most individuals with one flowering shoot. Leaves two with two leafless sheaths, 10–50 × 5–20 mm, green; ligule a very small rim at junction of sheath and blade, < 1 mm long, sparsely ciliate; longest leaf blade 200 × 25 mm, narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, erect, glabrous, base attenuate, apex attenuate; petiole absent. Inflorescence terminal, peduncle 5–18 mm long, flowers 1–6. Bracts narrowly elliptic, glabrous, 35×4mm, hyaline, subtending a single flower; bracteoles 2 per flower, opposite, narrowly triangular to subulate, largest one 27 × 1.5 mm, diminishing to 25 × 1 mm, hyaline, glabrous. Calyx tubular, 45×4mm (not flattened), glabrous, apex 3-dentate, greenish and translucent; floral tube 75–90×4mm (not flattened), glabrous, white; dorsal corolla lobe linear-acuminate, 40×6mm, white, glabrous, apex with 5 mm long mucro; lateral corolla lobes linear-acuminate, 35 × 5 mm, white, glabrous, apex acute; lateral staminodes oblong, 30×10mm, white, glabrous; labellum obcordate, 35–40 × 15–20 mm, white with purple patch at centre, glabrous, apex bifid, divided to 15–20 mm, lobes emarginate; stamen attached at mouth of floral tube, filament 2 mm long, thecae 4 mm long, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, crest flabellate, 3×5mm to 12×6mm, bifid, irregularly divided to 1–3mm, white, glabrous; epigynous glands two, subulate, 6–8 mm long; ovary cylindrical, 5 × 3 mm, glabrous, trilocular with axile placentation, ovules 2–6 per locule, 1 × 0.5 mm; stigma 1 mm long, obcuneiform, curved longitudinally, ostiole ciliate. Fruit dehiscent irregularly, cylindrical, obovate-oblong, ca 10–15 × 4–7 mm, calyx persistent; mature seeds not seen. 

Distribution and habitat 

Southern Lao PDR and Cambodia, paddy fields or in very open areas, in sandy soil. 

Conservation status 

Proposed IUCN status EN B1, B2, a, b(iii). EOO = 480 km2, AOO = 12 km2. This species is only known at three locations near the Cambodian-Lao border, none of which is protected in law. The main threat in Lao PDR comes from agriculture, particularly the creation of pathways to and between fields. The Cambodian location is within a built-up area in Siem Pang town. It may be developed in future. The number of mature individuals found at each location is less than 20. 

Key to species of Kaempferia in Cambodia and Lao PDR

1. Flowers appearing before leaves (subgenus Protanthium) ............................................................... 2 

– Flowers and leaves appearing at the same time (subgenus Kaempferia) ......................................... 3 

2. Leaves 2–4; blade oblong, green or purple, pubescent; petiole 10–20 mm long ......... K. rotunda L. – Leaves 5–7; blade elliptic, upper surface glabrous, lower pubescent; petiole absent ........................ 

.................................................................................... K. xiengkhouangensis Picheans. & Phokham 

3. Ligule present, > 2 mm long and clearly visible; flowers flat, directed upward ............................... 4 – Ligules very small, ≤ 2 mm long or absent; flowers cup-shaped, directed upward or sideward, or flat, directed upward ................................................................................................................................ 8 

4. Leaves erect, blade oblong .....................................................K. sawanensis Picheans. & Koonterm – Leaves flat on the ground, blade oblong or ovate to orbicular ......................................................... 5 

5. Lateral staminodes and labellum pink to purple; anther crest pink, apex non bifid ........................... ............................................................................................................K. marginata Carey ex Roscoe – Lateral staminodes white; labellum white with violet patch; anther crest white, apex bifid ............ 6 

11 

European Journal of Taxonomy 712: 1–15 (2020)

6. Anther crest rectangular, bifid, divided by 1 mm, apex rounded-emarginate ....... K. laotica Gagnep. 

– Anther crest elliptic or cuneate-flabellate, bifid, divided to the base ................................................ 7 7. Anther crest elliptic, 4 × 4 mm, lobes rounded .............................................................. K. galanga L. 

– Anther crest cuneate-flabellate, 6×7 mm, lobes emarginate-acute ...........K. harmandiana Gagnep. 8. Nyctanthous (night-flowering) .......................................................................................................... 9 

– Hemeranthous (day-flowering) ....................................................................................................... 10 

9. Ligule present, < 1 mm long; blade ensiform, coriaceous; lateral staminodes spathulate; stamen sessile ........................................................................................................................ K. fissa Gagnep. – Ligule absent; blade subulate, soft; lateral staminodes obovate; stamen attached at mouth of floral tube, filament 2 mm long .................................................................................... K. filifolia K.Larsen 

10. Bracteoles two per flower, fused at base, outside of floral tube puberulous ....................................... ............................................................................................. K. gigantiphylla Picheans. & Koonterm – Bracteoles two per flower, opposite, outside of floral tube glabrous ...............................................11 

11. Ovary puberulous ...................................................................................K. parviflora Wall. ex Baker – Ovary glabrous ................................................................................................................................ 12 

12. Leaf one, blade flat on the ground, orbicular .................................................. K. siamensis Sirirugsa – Leaf one to three, blade flat on the ground to erect, oblong to ovate ............................................. 13 

13. Floral tube ≤ 55 mm long; lateral staminodes obovate ................................................................... 14 – Floral tube ≥ 55 mm long; lateral staminodes oblong or obovate or spatulate ............................... 15 

14. Rhizome short, vertical; lateral staminode and labellum pink, anther crest entire or slightly crenate with pink patch ...................................................................................................K. larsenii Sirirugsa – Rhizome short horizontal and very slender; lateral staminodes and labellum pure white; anther crest bifid and pure white ....................................................... K. champasakensis Picheans. & Koonterm 

15. Floral orientation sideward; floral tube > 90 mm long; staminodes oblong, 40 × 12 mm; anther crest obovate, 10 × 6 mm; ovary 8 × 3.5 mm diameter ..................................... K. nemoralis Insis. sp. nov. – Floral orientation upward; floral tube ≤ 90 mm long; staminodes oblong or spatulate; anther crest flabellate or narrowly ovate to ovate; ovary 5 × 0.5–3 mm diameter .............................................. 16 

16. Floral tube 7590 mm long; staminodes oblong, 30 × 10 mm; anther crest flabellate, 3 × 5 mm to 12 × 6 mm, white; ovary 5 × 3 mm diameter ......................................... K. pascuorum Insis. sp. nov. – Floral tube 5562 mm long; staminodes spatulate, 20 × 12–16 mm; anther crest narrowly ovate to ovate, 4–6×3 mm; ovary 5×0.5 mm diameter .....................K. attapeuensis Picheans. & Koonterm 

Discussion 

This paper describes and illustrates two new species of Kaempferia, recently discovered in Cambodia and Lao PDR, adding to the overall biodiversity of these countries. A key is provided to distinguish the two new species from the other species known in these countries. The Vietnamese species of Kaempferia are not all included in this key because of the number of taxonomic uncertainties which remain. Further work is under way to produce a revision of Kaempferia in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam, including a molecular phylogenetic survey of the genus. More field collections are needed to complete our studies of poorly known species and to discover new taxa for which we have not yet obtained complete material. An assessment of the variation of species across their ranges is also required. In conclusion, our taxonomic and field work have already enriched botanical knowledge and collections, but more work is urgently needed in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam which are experiencing a high rate of deforestation and land conversion (Lang 2001). 

Acknowledgements 

The authors wish to thank the staff of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Lao PDR, especially Mrs Keophayvanh Douansavanh, general secretary of the Cabinet of the Lao Academy of Science and Technology and Mr Phouthasack Vichitra, director of the Cabinet. Also, the staff in Science and Technology at provincial and district level for all their support and help during our field work in Lao PDR. We are grateful to Assist. Prof. Dr Vichith Lamxay, Mr Sengmany Bouta and Miss Kobkeo Phethsomphou for their help. Mrs Youleang Peou, Mr Sovanrith Nheb and Miss Kunthea Chieb of the Department of Biology, Royal University of Phnom Penh, and Miss Sunisa Sangvirotjanapat, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok assisted us greatly during our Cambodian field work. Mrs Agathe Haevermans made the beautiful drawings. The authors wish to thank the Franklinia Foundation who contributed to this fieldwork through a grant to the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. This paper is part of a project (AAP3-96) supported by the Sud Expert Plantes Developpement Durable programme. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) is supported by the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services Division. 

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Manuscript received: 5 December 2018 Manuscript accepted: 10 June 2020 Published on: 4 September 2020

Topic editor: Frederik Leliaert 

Desk editor: Connie Baak 

Printed versions of all papers are also deposited in the libraries of the institutes that are members of the EJT consortium: Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, France; Meise Botanic Garden, Belgium; Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium; Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium; Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark; Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid CSIC, Spain; Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany; National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic. 


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Holcoglossum lingulatum (Aver.) Aver.; Photo Vũ Định An 

Vietnamese name: 

Tóc tiên Bắc

Chinise name: 

舌唇槽舌兰 she chun cao she lan

Common Name: 

The Flax-Like Holcoglossum

Latin Name: 

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Family: 

Orchidaceae

Synonym Name: 

Holcoglossum kimballianum var. lingulatum Aver.; Holcoglossum tangii Christenson

Description:

Orchid, erect, sometimes slightly curved, about 20 cm long. The tubular leaves are 15-20 cm long. The flower cluster is as long as leaf, with 1-6 flowers, flower size 2-2.5 cm, white color, the flower tongue has spots, reddish-brown dots, fragrant and perennial, blooming in Autumn.

Distribution: 

Found in northwest Guangxi and southeastern Yunnan provinces of China. In VietNam, found in Sa Pa, Lào Cai, Hoàng Liên Sơn.

Ecological: 

Epiphytic on tree trunks in open forests; at elevations of 1000-1300 m.

Reference: 

- theplantlist.org

- efloras.org

- orchidspecies.com

- ipni.org

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