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0 EARLY STEPS TOWARD THE USE OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION

1.3 EARLY STEPS TOWARD THE USE OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION
Around 500 B.C.E. the Greek philosophers recognized four elements: earth, water, phlogiston (~air), and fire. This view harmonizes with the present concept of three physical states of aggregation (solid, liquid, gas) and heat. Aristotle (~350 B.C.E.) emphasized that these “elements” were not eternal, but could be changed into each other. Five thousand years earlier, scientists already had found that when certain green minerals were heated in a coal fire, metallic copper was obtained. In Aristotle’s time it was known how to produce metals such as copper, gold, tin, lead, silver, iron, mercury, and arsenic. Even earlier, by transmuting certain “earths” with fire, ceramics and glasses had been produced. Many of these arts were probably developed by the Egyptians, the first true chemists. The word “alchemy” is derived from Arabic and Greek and is supposed to mean “art of transmutations as practiced by the Egyptians.” Fruit juices were fermented, oils and fats were squeezed out of vegetables and animal parts, and purified by digestion with earths, bones, etc. Crucibles, retorts, and even distillation equipment seem to have been in use; see Fig. 1.4. We must think of these early alchemists as endlessly mixing, heating, boiling, digesting, cooling, etc., everything they could collect from nature. The purpose of these transmutations varied: for lamps, weapons, pigments, perfumes, and poisons; for cosmetics and medicines to prevent aging and to prolong life (elixir vitae); for tanning chemicals, soap, anesthetics, and also for making gold. In fact, they did succeed in producing gold-like metals (e.g., brass). For example, it is known that they heated odorous leaves in alkaline water with fats and oils, so that ointments and perfumes could be enriched in the cooled solidified fat, and that these products were extensively used in the ancient courts, and perhaps even among the general population. If this is considered to be solvent extraction, it is truly one of the oldest chemical techniques. It is also likely that the Egyptians knew how to distill alcohol, long before it is described by the Arab Kautilya and the Greek Aristotle about 300 B.C.E. (See also Ref. [2].)
This experimentation more or less came to a halt during the Greek civilization. The Greeks were philosophers, and not so much experimentalists; Aristotle was a philosopher and a systematizer (systems technician, in modern language), not an experimentalist. The Greeks were followed by the Romans who were administrators, and by the Christians who considered alchemy to be ungodly. Although alchemy was practiced during subsequent centuries, particuarly in the Arabian world, it became suspect and was banned by many rulers (though encouraged in secrecy by others). About 500 years ago, alchemy was rather openly revived in Europe, particularly at local courts, and progressed within a few centuries into modern science.
Apparatus for fractionated distillation
Fig. 1.4 (a) Equipment used by alchemists, according to an Alexandrian manuscript (about 300 B.C.E. to A.D. 300). (b) Apparatus for fractionated distillation. Front page of Philosophi ac Alchimistae Maximi by Johannes Greininger, Strasbourg, 1531. The original work is ascribed to the great eighth-century Arab alchemist, Abu Musa Jabir. 
Digestion of various earths (or digested earths) with alcohol produces many organic solvents (ether, acetone, etc.). These solvents could be obtained in pure form through distillation. Such organic solvents could have been produced many thousands years ago, because of the obvious knowledge of distilla- tion [2]. However, 200 years ago only a few pure solvents seem to be known: besides the natural water and oils (and kerosene) only alcohol, ether, and “etheric oils” were acknowledged. It is difficult to trace organic solvents far back in history. The reason may simply be that organic compounds obtained by distillation of mixtures of natural products were found to be rather uninteresting (except for alcohol), because at that time they seemed to have very little practical value, and they certainly could not be used to produce gold. Because solvent extraction requires pure organic solvents of limited aqueous miscibility, it is then understandable why solvent extraction historically is considered (perhaps falsely) to be a newcomer among chemical separation methods.
REFERENCES
1. Freiser, H.; and Nancollas, G. H.; Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. Defini- tive Rules 1987. IUPAC. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1987).
2. Blass, E.; Liebl, T.; Ha ̈berl, M.; Solvent Extraction—A Historical Review, Proc. Int. Solv. Extr. Conf. Melbourne, 1996.
3. Ho ̈gfeldt, E.; Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes. Part A: Inorganic Li- gands. IUPAC Chemical Data Series No. 22, Pergamon Press, New York (1982).
4. McNaught, A. D.; and Wilkinson, A.; IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminol- ogy, Second Edition, Blackwell Science (1997).
5. IUPAC, Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, (Ed. Ian Mills), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge 2002.
Soure: Solvent Extraction Principles and Practice, Revised and Expanded edited by Jan Rydberg
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0 Cassia fistula L.

Cassia fistula L., Sp. Pl. 1: 377. 1753.

Cassia fistula L.; Family: Caesalpiniaceae
Vietnamese name: Bọ cạp nước, Muồng bọ cạp, Muồng hoàng yến
Chinese name: 腊肠树 la chang shu
English Name: Golden shower, purging cassia, Indian laburnum, pudding-pipe tree
Latin Name: Cassia fistula L.
Synonym Name: Bactyrilobium fistula Willd.; Cassia bonplandiana DC.; Cassia excelsa Kunth; Cassia fistuloides Collad. Cassia rhombifolia Roxb.; Cathartocarpus excelsus G.Don; Cathartocarpus fistula Pers.; Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G.Don; Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G.Don
Family: Caesalpiniaceae
Description
Trees, deciduous, to 15 m tall. Leaves 30-40 cm, with 3 or 4 pairs of leaflets; leaflets adaxially shiny, broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, 8-13 × 4-8 cm, leathery, both surfaces puberu­lent when young, glabrous when mature, base broadly cuneate, apex acute. Racemes axillary, 20-40(-60) cm, lax, pendent, many flowered; flowers 3.5-4 cm in diam. Pedicels 3-5 cm, slender. Sepals narrowly ovate, 1-1.5 cm, reflexed at anthesis. Petals golden yellow, broadly ovate, subequal, 2.5-3.5 cm, shortly clawed. Stamens 10, 3 long with curved filaments 3-4 cm, anthers ca. 5 mm, exceeding petals, 4 short with straight filaments 6-10 mm, reduced stamens with minute anthers. Ovary stalked, strigulose; stigma small. Legume pendulous, blackish brown, terete, sausage-shaped, indehiscent, 30-60 cm, 2-2.5 cm in diam. Seeds numerous, separated by papery septa, glossy brown, elliptic, flattened. 2n = 28. 
Habitat/ecology:
Ranging from Tropical Thorn to Moist through Subtropical Thorn to Moist Forest Life Zones, Indian laburnum is reported to tolerate precipitation of 4.8 to 27.2 dm (mean of 96 cases = 14.2), annual temperature of 18.0 to 28.5°C (mean of 94 cases = 25.5), and pH of 5.5 to 8.7 (mean of 23 cases = 7.1). Hortus III (1976) assigns it to Zone 10 in the United States.
Cultivation: Cassia fistula is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. It blooms in late spring. Flowering is profuse, with trees being covered with yellow flowers, many times with almost no leaf being seen. It grows well in dry climates. Growth for this tree is best in full sun on well-drained soil; it is relatively drought-tolerant and slightly salt-tolerant. It will tolerate light brief frost, but can get damaged if the cold persists. It can be subject to mildew or leaf spot, especially during the second half of the growing season. The tree blooms better with pronounced differences between summer and winter temperatures.
Distribution: Native to India, cultivated through­out the tropics.
Chemistry:
- Cassia fistula extracts have been attributed to their primary and secondary metabolite composition. Primary metabolite analysis has essentially been focussed on the seed, pollen, fruit, leaf and pod. The composition of protein 12 %, carbohydrate 11.75%, lipid 12% and free amino acid 1.42%, respectively. The stem bark of Cassia fistula contains two flavonol glycosides, 5, 7, 3’, 4’-tetrahydroxy-6, 8- dimethoxyflavone-3-O-α-arabinopyranoside, 5, 7, 4’-trihydroxy-6, 8, 3’- trimethoxyflavone-3-O-α-Lrhamnosyl (1—>2)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a xanthone glycoside, 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 7- dimethoxyxanthone-4-O- α-L-rhamnosyl (1— >2)-O--D-β glucopyranoside.
- The fruit of Cassia fistula was a good source of Fe and Mn, and their concentrations were considerably higher than those in apple, apricot, peach, pear and Orange and also revealed the presence of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and lysine constituted 15.3, 13.0 and 7.8%, respectively, of the total amino acids in the pulp. The seeds yield a gum (7.65%) which is the most efficient suspending agent for calomel, kaolin and talc29. Extraction of the dried and crushed seeds with petroleum ether (b.p.60-80°C) in a specially modified soxhlet apparatus gave 5.0% brownish yellow oil. Subsequently, Chrysophanic acid was also isolated from this oil. Mucilage (25.8%) was isolated from the seeds by extraction with hot water. The seeds constituted the same amino acids with 16.6, 19.5 and 6.6%, respectively while, isolated 5-Nonatetracontanone, 2-hentriacontanone, triacontane, 16 hentriacontane and beta– sitosterol from the hexane fraction of the fruits. fruit pulp contains sugar, gum, astringent matter, gluten, coloring matter and water proteins (19.94%) and carbohydrates (26.30%); arginine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, aspartic and glutamic acids; a new dimeric proanthocyanidin CFI isolated along with (–) epiafzelechin, (+) catechin, kaempferol, dihydrokaempferol and 1, 8-dihydroxy-3- methylanthraquinone. The neutral lipids were accounted for over 89.80% of the total weight of the lipid employed. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in the oil were separated and varied from 23.79% to 28.20% and 63.28% to 66.71% respectively. The fatty acid composition of the oil was analyzed by Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). The major fatty acids found in the oil were linoleic acid (42.42%), oleic acid (29.62%), stearic acid (14.33%) and palmitic acid (11.41%). In addition to the above, caprylic acid (0.76%) and myristic acid (1.44%) were also present in minor amounts. Yueh-Hsiung Kuo et al. (2002), identified four new compounds from the seeds of Cassia fistula, 5-(2-hydroxy phenoxy methyl) furfural, (22 S)-7-hydroxy- 5-hydroxymethyl-2-(22 -hydroxypropyl) chromone, benzyl 2- hydroxy-3,6- dimethoxybenzoate and benzyl 2 -O-D-glucopyranosyl- 3,6-dimethoxybenzoate, together with four known compounds, 5 hydroxymethylfurfural, (22 S)-7-hydroxy-2-(22 -hydroxypropyl)-5- methylchromone, and two oxyanthraquinones, chrysophanol and chrysophanein.
Pharmacological study:
1. Anti-Fungal Activity
4-hydroxy benzoic acid hydrate obtained from the extracts of the flower of Cassia fistula (an ethnomedicinal plant) showed antifungal activity against richophyton mentagrophytes (MIC 0.5 mg/ml) and Epidermophyton floccosum (MIC 0.5 mg/ml).
2. Antibacterial activity
Three lectins from the Cassia fistula seeds possess antibacterial activities against various pathogenic bacteria.The antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic extract of stem bark of Cassia fistula was highly effective.
3. Anti- inflammatory activity
The extract of leaves of Cassia fistula was suggested for anti-inflammatory effects. the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the Cassia fistula bark were found significant.
4. Central Nervous System activities
The methanol extract of the seed Cassia fistula was tested for different pharmacological actions in mice. A depressant action of ME was also evident from the behavioral studies on mice. These results contribute with novel antiprotozoal compounds for future drug design studies.
5. Antiparasitic Activity
The fractionation through guided antileishmanial activity of the dichloromethane extract of Cassia fistula fruits (Leguminosae) led to the isolation of the active isoflavone biochanin A, identified by spectroscopic method.
6. Anti-itching activity
Vicharchika (eczema) is a chronic skin disease with no permanent cure in modern medicine. Raising serum IgE level is the commonest immunological marker for eczema. This study suggests of significant efficacy of Aragvadha on the patients of Vicharchika (eczema).
7. Antipyretic activity
The pods of Cassia fistula was found to be devoid of antipyretic activity in experimental models. The pod's extracts showed a marked antipyretic effect by causing a reduction in yeast-induced fever. The extract caused a better hypothermal activity against yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Subcutaneous injection of yeast induces pyrexia by increasing synthesis of prostaglandin and is used to screen.
8. Antitussive activity:
The methanolic extract of Cassia fistula was investigated for its effect on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. It exhibited significant antitussive activity when compared with control in a dose-dependent manner.
9. Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidant activities of the aqueous (CFA) and methanolic extracts (CFM) of the Cassia fistula. Both extracts exhibited significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, Nitric oxide, and Hydroxyl radical induced in-vitro assay methods. Both extracts showed Dose-Dependent protective effect Against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation in liver and kidney homogenates 24, 25. Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula Linn) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Fruit Pulp powder of Cassia fistula was investigated for its antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo.
10. Wound Healing
Infection is the major problem to treat the wound. Antibiotic resistance by the pathogenic microorganism renders drug ineffective. The alcohol extract of C. fistula leaves was analyzed for Antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cassia fistula treated rats showed, better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological
parameters pertaining to wound healing, and thus confirming the efficacy of Cassia fistula in the treatment of the infected wound.
11. Antiulcer activity
The ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula Linn was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation- induced gastric ulcer.
12. Antileishmanial activity
Hexane extract from the fruits showed significant antileishmanial activity against the promastigote form of Leishmania L. chagasi.
13. Anti-fertility
Cassia fistula reversibly suppresses fertility in male rats. Withdrawal of extract restored all the altered parameters, including organ weights, fertility, the circulatory level of hormones and tissue biochemistry, to control levels after 120 days. Oral administration of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula to mated female rats from day 1-5 of pregnancy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in 57.14% and 71.43% prevention of pregnancy, respectively, whereas 100% pregnancy inhibition was noted at 500 mg/kg bw.
14. Antimicrobial activity
The leaves, stem bark and fruit pulp showed antibacterial activity. The fruit pulp was the most potent in this respect. The activity might be due to the presence of flavonoids. The solvent ether extract of the fruit pulp possess the maximum activity and when compared to chloramphenicol, the activity of 1 gm of this extract was found to be more than that seen with 100-g of chloramphenicol.
15. Antitumor activity
The effects of methanolic extract (ME) of Cassia fistula seed on the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on the life span of tumor-bearing mice were studied. ME treatment showed an increase of life span, and a decrease in the tumor volume and viable tumor cell count in the EAC tumor hosts. Cytological studies have revealed a reduction in the mitotic activity and the appearance of membrane blebbing and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in the treated tumor cells. Improvement in the hematological parameters following ME treatment, like hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and bone marrow cell count of the tumor bearing mice have also been observed. The results of the present study suggest that ME of C. fistula seed has an antitumor activity. Hematological studies have revealed that out of the three doses of ME, ME at the dose of 100 mg/kg has shown better results than at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. The exact mechanism by which ME mediates its antitumor effect is still to be elucidated. Cytological changes indicate that ME might be having a direct tumoricidal effect on the tumor cells.
16. Hepato- protective activity
Cassia fistula Linn. has improved in the markers of hepatic toxicity and oxidative stress. The hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaves has proved protective effect is analogous to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. Effect on chikungunya The crude extract of Cassia fistula Linn. Served as a potential larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent agent against chikungunya vector mosquito.
17. Laxative activity
In-vitro effect of Cassia fistula infusion on isolated guinea-pig ileum study concluded that C. fistula pod infusion possesses significant dose-dependent laxative activity.
18. Effect on skin diseases
On the basis of the results of this study, it may be concluded that the Cassia fistula is having a significant effect in ameliorating the skin diseases due to pitta origin and is the safe drug of choice of purgation therapy.
18. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity
The methanolic leaf extract of Cassia fistula was tested for larvicidal and ovicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. The results show that the leaf extract of C. fistula is promising as a larvicidal and ovicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi.
19. Hypolipidemic Activity
The effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula Linn. Legume was assessed on serum lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. The effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula legume was assessed on serum lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats.
20. Antidiabetic Activity
The antidiabetic potential of the total alcoholic extract & its ethyl acetate fraction of the bark of Cassia fistula was studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a Significant reduction in blood glucose levels than alcoholic extract. The activity was found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. The mechanism of hypoglycemic and antidiabetic action of hydroalcoholic extract of Cassia fistula Linn in rats was reported.The ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula Linn Stem bark was investigated for their antihyperglycemic activity. Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The seeds of Cassia fistula were investigated for their hypoglycemic activity. They were found to have marked hypoglycemic activity on normal albino rats but not on alloxan produced diabetic
albino rats.
Use food: In India, flowers of the golden shower tree are sometimes eaten by people. The leaves have also been used to supplement the diets of cattle, sheep, and goats fed with low-quality forages.
Use medical:
- In Ayurvedic medicine, the golden shower tree is known as aragvadha, meaning "disease killer". The fruit pulp is considered a purgative, and self-medication or any use without medical supervision is strongly advised against in Ayurvedic texts. Though it has been used in herbalism for millennia, little research has been conducted in modern times, although it is an ingredient in some mass-produced herbal laxatives. When used as such, it is known as "cassia pods".
- In VietNam, Treatment of skin fungus (Leaves). Diarrhea, rheumatism, indigestion, limbs, constipation, dysentery (Fruit). Fever (Flower). Roundworm (Wood).
- In India, a cathartic made from the pulp is sometimes added to tobacco.
Reference:
- theplantlist.org
- efloras.org
- ipni.org
- Aarti V. Pawar, Sayali .J Patil, Suresh G. Killedar; Uses of Cassia Fistula Linn as a Medicinal Plant; Pawar Aarti .V; International Journal of Advance Research and Development.; 2017, Volume2, Issue3, pp. 85-89
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0 Crassocephalum crepidioides

Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore, J. Bot. 50: 211 (1912).

Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore; Family Asteraceae
Vietnamese name: Rau tàu bay
Chinese name: 野茼蒿 ye tong hao
Papua New Guinea name: thick head (Pidgin), marago beja (Kaluli, Southern Highlands), yogobikabika (Bwaidoga, Goodenough Island, Milne Bay)
Thailand Name: phakphet chaang (Mae Hong Son), yaa kho on (Chiang Mai), phakhaan (Loei)
Latin Name: Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore
Family: Asteraceae
Synonym Name: Crassocephalum crepidioides f. crepidioides; Crassocephalum crepidioides var. crepidioides; Crassocephalum crepidioides var. lutea Steen.; Crassocephalum crepidioides f. luteum (Steen.) Belcher; Crassocephalum diversifolium Hiern; Gynura crepidioides Benth.; Gynura crepidioides var. crepidioides; Gynura diversifolia Sch.Bip. ex Asch.; Gynura microcephala Vatke     
Gynura polycephala Benth. ; Senecio crepidioides Asch.; Senecio diversifolius A.Rich.
Distribution:
An erect, sparingly branched annual herb up to 100 cm tall; stem rather stout, soft, ribbed, branches pubescent. Leaves arranged spirally, elliptical, oblong or obovate-elliptical in outline, 8-18 cm × 2-5.5 cm, pinnately lobed or pinnatifid, irregularly serrate, base tapered and often long-decurrent into the petiole, upper leaves sessile; stipules absent. Inflorescence a head arranged in terminal, rather small corymbs, cylindrical, 13-16 mm × 5-6 mm, nodding during anthesis, afterwards erect, many-flowered; inner involucral bracts 1-2-seriate, initially coherent, lanceolate, 8-12 mm long, pellucid-marginate, outer involucral bracts linear, unequal, 1-4 mm long; hypanthium flat, epaleate. Flowers bisexual, equal; corolla tubular, 9-11 mm long, yellow with reddish-brown top, tube long and slender, limb short, 5-fid; anthers 5, united, purplish; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style bifid, arms long, having apical appendages. Fruit a cylindrical-linear, ribbed achene c. 2 mm long, crowned by numerous white, minutely toothed, caducous pappus hairs 9-12 mm long. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl long, up to 2 cm long; cotyledons broad-ovate, glabrous, shortly petiolate.
Distribution:
It originates from Africa and Madagascar. It is now found native to Africa; pantropical weed of Africa, S and SE Asia, Australia, Central and South America, and Pacific islands.
Ecology: Slopes, roadsides, streamsides, thickets; 300-1800 m.
Chemistry:
- In Vietnam: The leaf, stem, and floral essential oils of Crassocephalum crepidioides growing wild in central Vietnam were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component in all 3 oils was myrcene (59.3%, 26.1%, and 43.3%, respectively).
- In India: The essential oil of Crassocephalum crepidioides was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (80.9 %) with β-myrcene (65.9 %), β-phellandrene (8.8 %), α-pinene (3.1 %) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.8 %) with α-copaene (1.5 %), and α-humulene (1.5 %). Promising essential oil yield with β-myrcene as major component, suggests that crop could be considered for commercial cultivation
Pharmacology:
1. Anti-Tumor: Study evaluated the in vitro and in-vivo antitumor activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides on murine Sarcoma 180 (S-180) and related mechanisms. Results showed oncolytic and immunopotentiation properties mediated through NF-kB-induced release of NO from macrophages.
- The obtained essential oil was tested against human cervical cancer SiHa, human oral epidermal carcinoma KB and human adenocarcinoma Colo-205 cell lines at 48 h, which showed significant results against all cell lines (59.8±3.7, 67.9±0.5 and 84.5±3.6, respectively at 100 µg/ml).
2.  Renal Histo-Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the effects of oral consumption of aqueous leaf extract of Crassocephalum crepidioides on the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testes of Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed no deleterious effect on the cytoarchitecture of the frontal cortex, liver and testes. Histopathological alterations were observed characterized by histological damage to kidneys of the rats which may be the result of direct toxicity, effect of released of toxic substances from other organs, or deleterious effects of a plant phytochemical. Results suggest further studies to isolate the specific component responsible for the kidney toxicity.
3. Cytotoxicity Testing: Cytotoxicity testing was done using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. LC50 value of leaf extract showed to be 0.901 mg/ml indicating non-toxicity.
4. Hepatoprotective/Free Radical Scavenging: Study showed Crassocephalum crepidioides to be a potent antioxidant and protective against galactosamine (GaIN) plus liposaccharide (LPS)- or CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acids, quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were identified as active components.
5. Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of hot aqueous extract of Crassocephalum crepidioides and C. odorata against three bacterial isolates i.e., S. aureus, K. pneunonia, and E. coli. All three were sensitive to both, however K. pneumonia was most sensitive to Crassocephalum crepidioides with MIC of 15 mg/ml while S. aureus was most resistant.
- The 24-hour mosquito larvicidal activities of the oil of the aerial parts (stems and leaves) were determined against wild-caught Aedes albopictus (IC50 = 14.3 μg/mL), laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti (IC50 = 4.95 μg/mL), and wild-caught Culex quinquefasciatus (IC50 = 18.4 μg/mL)
6. Toxicity Study as Leafy Vegetable: Study based on LC50 and toxicity table showed non of the species of vegetable Gboli investigated was toxic to shrimp larvae as their LC50 are greater than 0.1 mg/ml. Taking in account established correlation between toxicity of shrimp larvae and that of human cells, study suggests the two species of Gbolo can be considered as leafy vegetable with no risk of toxicity.
7. Renal Effects: Study evaluated the effects of oral consumption of aqueous leaf extract of Crassocephalum crepidioides on frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testes of Sprague Dawley rats using anatomical studies. Results showed no deleterious effects on the cytoarchitecture of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver, and testes of rats. It showed histophathological changes in the kidneys of treated rats suggesting it may affect the functional activities of the kidney. Authors suggest isolation of specific components responsible for renal toxicity to standardize plant preparations for maximum culinary and therapeutic benefits.
8. Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the free radical scavenging and protective actions of Crassocephalum crepidioides against chemically induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed C. crepidioides is a potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective against GaIN plus LPS- or CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. (see constituents above)
9. Anti-Diabetic/B-Cell Protection: Study in wistar albino mice evaluated the B-cell protection and anti-diabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides by pancreatic B-cell culture and α-amylase inhibition technique. Results showed significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) effect on hyperglycemia compared to standard (Gliclazide) in OGTT. Plant showed efficient protection of pancreatic B-cell death in INS-1 cell line by significantly reducing levels of alloxan-induced apoptosis and intracellular ROS accumulation.
Parts used: Leaves, whole plant.
Edibility:
- Fleshy, mucilaginous leaves and stems are eaten raw or cooked. Leaves have a nutty flavor.
- In Africa, fleshy mucilaginous leaves and stems are eaten as vegetable.
- A highly consumed leafy vegetable in Benin.
- In Nigeria, lightly blanched leaves are cooked with pepper, onions, tomatoes, melon, and fish or meat to makes soups and stews. In Sierra Leone, leaves are grounded into paste to make a sauce.
- In Thailand, roots eaten with chili sauce.
Medicinal:
- In Papua New Guinea Crassocephalum crepidioides leaves are used externally to treat sores and irritation of the penis. The leaves are considered mildly stomachic in Africa, and are applied to treat indigestion, colic and flatulence. In Africa the leaves are also used as an analgesic to treat headache and epilepsy, whereas powdered leaves are administered as a snuff to stop nosebleeds and smoked to treat sleeping sickness.
- Young plants are used as a vegetable in Vietnam and Japan, and in Africa the mucilaginous leaves are eaten in soups and sauces, and with groundnuts. The plants are readily eaten by livestock, and they are considered a useful green fodder for poultry. Crassocephalum crepidioides has been used successfully as a trap plant to collect adult corm weevils in banana plantations.
Reference:
- theplantlist.org
- efloras.org
- ipni.org
- stuartxchange.com
- uses.plantnet-project.org
- Soni Thakur, R. Koundal, D. Kumar, A. K. Maurya, Y. S. Padwad, B. Lal and V. K. Agnihotri; Volatile Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of Aerial Parts of Crassocephalum crepidioides growing in Western Himalaya, India. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Nguyen Huy Hung, Prabodh Satyal, Do Ngoc Dai, Thieu Anh Tai, Le Thi Huong, Nguyen Thị Hong Chuong, Ho Viet Hieu, Phạm Anh Tuân, Pham Van Vuong, William N. Setzer; Chemical Compositions of Crassocephalum crepidioides Essential Oils and Larvicidal Activities Against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; 2019 Biology Natural Product Communications
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0 1.2 SOLVENT EXTRACTION IS A FUNDAMENTAL SEPARATION PROCESS

1.2 SOLVENT EXTRACTION IS A FUNDAMENTAL SEPARATION PROCESS

Under normal conditions, matter can appear in three forms of aggregation: solid, liquid, and gas. These forms or physical states are consequences of various interactions between the atomic or molecular species. The interactions are governed by internal chemical properties (various types of bonding) and external physical properties (temperature and pressure). Most small molecules can be transformed between these states (e.g., H2O into ice, water, and steam) by a moderate change of temperature and/or pressure. Between these physical states— or phases—there is a sharp boundary (phase boundary), which makes it possi- ble to separate the phases—for example, ice may be removed from water by filtration. The most fundamental of chemical properties is the ability to undergo such phase transformations, the use of which allows the simplest method for isolation of pure compounds from natural materials.
In a gas mixture such as the earth’s atmosphere, the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen decreases slightly with atmospheric height because of the greater gravitational attraction of oxygen. However, the gravitational field of the earth is not enough for efficient separation of these gases, which, however, can be separated by ultracentrifugation and by diffusion techniques. In crushed iron ore it is pos- sible to separate the magnetite crystals Fe3O4 from the silicate gangue material by physical selection under a microscope or by a magnetic field. In chemical engineering such separation techniques are referred to as nonequilibrium processes. Other common nonequilibrium processes are electrolysis, electrophore- sis, and filtration.
In contrast to these we have the equilibrium processes of sublimation, absorption, dissolution, precipitation, evaporation, and condensation, through which the physical states of solid, liquid, and gas are connected. For example, the common crystallization of salts from sea water involves all three phases. Distillation, which is essential for producing organic solvents, is a two-step evaporation (liquid ⇒ gas) condensation (gas ⇒ liquid) process.
In Fig. 1.2, phase transformations are put into their context of physical processes used for separation of mixtures of chemical compounds. However, the figure has been drawn asymmetrically in that two liquids (I and II) are indicated. Most people are familiar with several organic liquids, like kerosene, ether, benzene, etc., that are only partially miscible with water. This lack of miscibility allows an equilibrium between two liquids that are separated from each other by a common phase boundary. Thus the conventional physical system of three phases (gas, liquid, and solid, counting all solid phases as one), which ordinarily are available to all chemists, is expanded to four phases when two immiscible liquids are involved. This can be of great advantage, as will be seen when reading this book.
Model of a four-phase system consisting of two liquid phases
Fig. 1.2 Model of a four-phase system consisting of two liquid phases (e.g., an aqueous and an organic phase) in equilibrium with a gas phase and a solid phase.
Solutes have differing solubilities in different liquids due to variations in the strength of the interaction of solute molecules with those of the solvent. Thus, in a system of two immiscible or only partially miscible solvents, different solutes become unevenly distributed between the two solvent phases, and as noted earlier, this is the basis for the solvent extraction technique. In this con- text, “solvent” almost invariably means “organic solvent.” This uneven distribution is illustrated in Fig. 1.3, which shows the extractability into a kerosene solution of the different metals that appear when stainless steel is dissolved in aqueous acid chloride solution. The metals Mo, Zn, and Fe(III) are easily extracted into the organic solvent mixture at low chloride ion concentration, and Cu, Co, Fe(II), and Mn at intermediate concentration, while even at the highest chloride concentration in the system, Ni and Cr are poorly extracted. This is used industrially for separating the metals in super-alloy scrap in order to recover the most valuable ones.
Percentage of extraction of various metals from a solution of dissolved stainless steel scrap
Fig. 1.3 Percentage of extraction of various metals from a solution of dissolved stainless steel scrap, at 40oC. The organic phase is 25% tertiary amine (Alamine 336), 15% dodecanol (Loral C12) and 60% kerosene (Nysolvin 75A). The aqueous phase is a CaCl2 solution at pH 2.
The three main separation processes between solid, gas, and liquid have long been known, while solvent extraction is a relatively new separation technique, as is described in the brief historical review in next two sections. Nevertheless, because all solutes (organic as well as inorganic) can be made more or less soluble in aqueous and organic phases, the number of applications of solvent extraction is almost limitless. Since large-scale industrial solvent extraction is a continuous process (in contrast to laboratory batch processes) and can be made more selective than the conventional gas–liquid–solid separation techniques, it offers numerous industrial possibilities to achieve desired separation efficiently and economically.
REFERENCES 
1. Freiser, H.; and Nancollas, G. H.; Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. Defini- tive Rules 1987. IUPAC. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1987). 
2. Blass, E.; Liebl, T.; Ha ̈berl, M.; Solvent Extraction—A Historical Review, Proc. Int. Solv. Extr. Conf. Melbourne, 1996. 
3. Ho ̈gfeldt, E.; Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes. Part A: Inorganic Li- gands. IUPAC Chemical Data Series No. 22, Pergamon Press, New York (1982). 
4. McNaught, A. D.; and Wilkinson, A.; IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminol- ogy, Second Edition, Blackwell Science (1997). 
5. IUPAC, Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, (Ed. Ian Mills), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge 2002. 

Soure: Solvent Extraction Principles and Practice, Revised and Expanded edited by Jan Rydberg

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0 Sterculia lanceolata Cav.

Sterculia lanceolata Cav., Diss. 6: 287, pl. 143, f. 1 1788.

Sterculia lanceolata Cav.; Family: Sterculiaceae
Sterculia lanceolata
Sterculia lanceolata Cav.; Family: Sterculiaceae
Vietnamese name: Cây sáng sé; Sảng; trôm mề gà, trôm lá mác, trôm thon, che van
Chinese name: 假苹婆 jia ping po
English Name: Lance-leaved Sterculia, Scarlet Sterculia, Fake Sterculia
Latin Name: Sterculia lanceolata Cav.
Synonym Name: Helicteres undulata Lour.; Sterculia balansae Aug. DC.
Family: Sterculiaceae
Description
Trees. Branchlets at first pilose. Petiole 2.5-3.5 cm; leaf blade elliptic, lanceolate, or elliptic-lanceolate, 9-20 × 3.5-8 cm, abaxially nearly glabrous, adaxially glabrous, lateral veins 7-9 on each side of midrib, curved upward, connected near margin, base obtuse or nearly rounded, apex acute. Inflorescence paniculate, 4-10 cm, densely many-branched. Calyx reddish, divided almost to base, pubescent abaxially, lobes oblong-lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, 4-6 mm, stellately spreading, margins ciliate, apex obtuse or minutely mucronate. Male flowers: androgynophore 2-3 mm, curved. Anthers ca. 10. Female flowers: ovary globose, hairy. Style curved; stigma minutely 5-lobed. Follicle red when fresh, narrowly ovoid or ellipsoid, 5-7 × 2-2.5 cm, 2-4-seeded, densely puberulent, base attenuate, apex beaked. Seeds black-brown, ellipsoid-ovoid, ca. 1 cm. Flowering: April to June.
Habitat/ecology: Usually near streams
Distribution: Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
Chemistry: Tannin, gum.
Part Used:  Medical part: leaves. Chinese name: Honglangsan.
Harvest & Processing:  Collected leaves in summer and autumn, used fresh or sundried.
Properties & Actions: Pungent, warm. Dissipating stasis and relieving pain.
Indications & Usage:  Injuries from falls, swelling pain. Oral administration: decocting, 6-12g. External application: appropriate amount, prepared decoction for washing.
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