Solanum Khasianum

2.8.1.2 Solanum Khasianum

Biological Source It consist of the dried and full grown berries of Solanum khasianum CR belonging to the family Solanaceae.
Geographical Source The plant grows indigenously on the Khasia Mountains in Assam (India).
Preparation The plant usually grows in various climatic and agricultural conditions. Almost after a duration of six months the plants are normally harvested for the collection of berries. They are dried immediately either in an artificial environment at low temperature (50-60°C) or dried preferably in shade so as to bring down the initial large moisture content to enable its prolonged storage life. The dried berries are powdered by mechanical grinders and the oil is removed by solvent extraction. The defatted material (marc) is then extracted in a soxhlet assembly with ethanol (95% v/v) The resulting alcoholic extract is filtered, concentrated under vacuo, treated with HCl (12N) and refluxed for at least six hours. The alcoholic extract thus obtained is made alkaline by the
addition of ammonia and the eontents are again refluxed for a duration of 1 hour. The contents of the flask is filtered and the residue is washed, dried and taken up in chloroform. The resulting mixture is fltered and the steroidal alkaloid solasodine is obtained as a solid residue soonafter evaporating the solvent.
Description The berries have a yellowish to greenish colouration with flattened smooth brown seeds.
Chemcial Constituents The berries mostly comprise of the steroidal saponin Salosanine as shown below:

Salosanine
Solasonine also occurs in various Solanum species namely : Solanum aviculare Forst F., Solanum sodomeum L., Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl, m Solanum nigrum Linn., Solanum torvum Sw., and Solanum verbascifolium Linn. Besides, the berries contain a steroidal glycoalkaloid known as solasodine (Approx. 3%) and
a greenish yellow fixed oil (8-10%).
Uses Solasodine is the hydrolysed product of solasonine which is mostly used as a starting material for the synthesis of steroidal drugs, such as: 19-NOR steroids, pregnane etc.

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