Germine-occur in Veratrum and Zygadenus species, such as: Veratrum viride

B.1.4 Germine


Biological Source Germine (an alkamine) is present in a plethora of polyester alkaloids that occur in Veratrum and Zygadenus species, such as: Veratrum viride Ait. (Liliaceae).
Chemical Structure (3α, 4α, 7α, 15α, 16β)-4, 9-Epoxycevane-3, 4, 7, 14, 15, 16, 20-heptol (C27H43NO8).

Cevadine
Characteristic Features
1. It is obtained as crystals from methanol mp 221.5-223 C°.
2. It has specific rotation [α]D25  +4.5o(95% ethanol) and [α]D16 +23.1o (C = 1.13 in 10% acetic acid).
3. Solubility: It is soluble in chloroform, methanol, ethanol, acetone and water; and slightly soluble in ether.
Identification Tests It forms three different types of ‘acetates’ having specific characteristic features as stated below:
1. 3-Acetate derivative of Germine (C29H45NO9): It forms needles from ether having mp 219-221°C and [α]D23 +1.0o(C = 1.05 in pyridine).
2. 16-Acetate derivative of Germine (C29H45NO9): It forms crystals from chloroform having mp 225-227°C and [α]D23 -19o (C = 0.93 in pyridine).
3. 3, 4, 7, 15, 16-Pentaacetate derivative of Germine (C37H53NO13): It yields prisms from acetone + petroleum ether which decomposes at 285-287°C and [α]D23 -65o(C = 0.65 in pyridine).

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