Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr.; Family Scrophulariaceae-Therapeutic uses

Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr.

Botanical name: Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr.; Family Scrophulariaceae
Synonyms: Adenosma capitatum (Benth.) Benth. ex Hance; Manulea indiana Lour.; Pterostigma capitatum Benth.; Pterostigma spicatum Benth.; Stoechadomentha capitata Kuntze
Local names: Bồ bồ, Chè đồng, chè nội, chè cát, nhân trần hoa đầu
Description: Annuals, 19-60(-100 or more) cm tall, densely hairy. Stems erect, branched. Petiole 2-6 mm; leaf blade ovate to narrowly elliptic, 1.5-4.5 x 0.5-1.2 cm, densely glandular hairy, abaxially villous along veins and brown when dry, adaxially villous and blackish when dry, margin serrate, apex obtuse. Inflorescences globose to cylindric spicate, 0.7-2 X 0.7-1.1 cm, dense; bracts narrowly ovate, forming an involucre at base of spikes. Flowers sessile. Bracteoles linear, 3-4 mm. Calyx 4-5 mm; lobes narrowly ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 mm, apex acuminate. Corolla pale purple to dark blue, ca. 6 mm; throat hairy; lower lip lobes equal, suborbicular, ca. 1 X 1-1.2 mm; upper lip retuse to 2-lobed. Anterior anthers with 1 locule fertile; posterior anthers with both locules fertile. Ovary narrowly ovoid. Capsule ovoid, ca. 3 mm, 2-grooved. Seeds yellow. Fl. and fr. Sep-Nov..

Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr.
Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr.; Family Scrophulariaceae
Distribution:  Commonly found wild in mountainous regions, especially on hillsides and field-edges.
Parts used: The whole plant is collected in summer during its flowering period (Herba Adenosmatis Indiani). It is carefully washed then subjected to thorough air-drying.
Chemical composition:  The plants contain triterpenoid saponins, phenolic acids, coumarins and flavonoids. The volatile oil from the plant consists of L. fenchone 35%, limonene 22.6%, cineol 5.9%, piperitenon oxide and sesquiterpene oxide.
Therapeutic uses:
The whole plant, except the roots, constitutes an antibacterial, cholagogic, diuretic and stomachic remedy. It is useful for the treatment of jaundice in viral hepatitis, oliguria, biliuria, fever, ophthalmalgia, vertigo and dyspepsia in parturients. It is prescribed in a daily dose of 10 to 20g in the form of a decoction, extract or syrup.

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