THE EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL OILS, SYNTHETICS, AND ISOLATES

THE EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL OILS, SYNTHETICS, AND ISOLATES


"The Examination and Analysis of Essential Oils, Synthetics, and Isolates" describes the commercial methods of testing and evaluating the raw materials of the essential oil industry. Most of these methods have been used in the New York and Clifton laboratories of Fritzsche Brothers, Inc., during the course of many years. They frequently represent standard official procedures or modifications of such procedures. Many highly specialized techniques which are of value in the scientific examination of essential oils have not been included because they are seldom used in a commercial laboratory.
Acknowledgment is due to the following standard reference works for much basic material used in the descriptions and discussions of these analytical methods :
"The United States Pharmacopoeias," United States Pharmacopoeia! Conventions, Washington, D. C.
"The National Formularies," American Pharmaceutical Association, Washington, D.C.
"The British Pharmacopoeias," General Council of Medical Education and Begistration of the United Kingdom, Constable & Co., London.
"Official and Tentative Methods of Analyses of the Association of Agricultural Chemists," Association of Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D.C.
E. Gildemeister and F. Hoffmann, "Die iitherischen Ole," 3d Ed., Schimmel & Co., Miltitz, 1929-1931.
S. Mulliken, "A Method for the Identification of Pure Organic Compounds,"1st Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1904. Berichte, Schimmel & Co., Miltitz.

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SAMPLING AND STORAGE

III. DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

1. Specific Gravity
2. Optical Rotation
a. Liquids
b. Solids
3. Refractive Index
4. Molecular Refraction
5. Solubility
a. Solubility in Alcohol
b. Solubility in Nonalcoholic Media
6. Congealing Point
7. Melting Point
8. Boiling Range
9. Evaporation Residue
10. Flash Point

IV. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

1. Determination of Acids
2. Determination of Esters
a. Determination by Saponification with Heat
b. Determination by Saponification in the Cold
3. Determination of Alcohols
a. Determination by Acetylation
b. Determination of Primary Alcohols
c. Determination of Tertiary Terpene Alcohols
d. Determination of Citronellol by Formylation
4. Determination of Aldehydes and Ketones
a. Bisulfite Method
b. Neutral Sulfite Method
c. Phenylhydrazine Method
d. Hydroxylaminc Methods
5. Determination of Phenols
6. Determination of Cineole
7. Determination of Ascaridole
8. Determination of Camphor
9. Determination of Methyl Anthranilate
10. Determination of Allyl Isothiocyanate
11. Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide
12. Determination of Iodine Number

V. SPECIAL TESTS AND PROCEDURES

1. Flavor Tests
2. Tests for Halogens
3. Tests for Heavy Metals
4. Test for Dimethyl Sulfidc in Peppermint Oils
5. Tests for Impurities in Nitrobenzene
a. Test for Thiophene
b. Soap Test
6. Test for Phellandrene
7. Test for Furfural
8. Test for Phenol in Methyl Salieylate
9. Determination of Essential Oil Content of Plant Material and Oleoresins
10. Determination of Ethyl Alcohol Content of Tinctures and Essences
11. Determination of Water Content
a. Determination by the Bidwell-Sterling Method
b. Determination by the Karl Fischer Method
12. Determination of Stearoptene Content of Rose Oils
13. Determination of Safrole Content of Sassafras Oils
14. Determination of Cedrol Content of Cedarwood Oils
15. Determination of the Color Value of Oleoresin Capsicum

VI. DETECTION OF ADULTERANTS

1. Detection of Foreign Oils in Sweet Birch and Wintergreen Oils
2. Detection of Petroleum and Mineral Oil
a. Oleum Test
6. Schimmel Tests
3. Detection of Rosin
a. Detection of Rosin in Balsams and Gums
6. Detection of Rosin in Cassia Oils
c. Detection of Rosin in Orange Oils
4. Detection of Terpinyl Acetate
5. Detection of Turpentine Oil
6. Detection of Acetins
7. Detection of Ethyl Alcohol
8. Detection of Methyl Alcohol
9. Detection of High Boiling Esters
a. Detection of Various Esters
b. Detection of Phthalates
10. Detection of Mentha Arvensis Oil
11. Detection of Various Adulterants

VII. A PROCEDURE FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE CHEMICAL

CONSTITUENTS OF AN ESSENTIAL OIL

VIII. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL LITERATURE

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