Aesculus chinensis Bunge

Aesculus chinensis Bunge
Aesculus chinensis
Latin Name: Aesculus chinensis Bunge; Family Hippocastanaceae
Synonym Name: Aesculus chinensis var. chinensis; Pawia chinensis Kuntze        
English Name: Chinese Buckeye, Chinese Horse-chestnut, China Buckeye
Vietnamese name: Kẹn
Chinese name: 七叶, qi ye shu, Suoluozi.
Description: Trees to 25 m tall, to 2.5 m d.b.h. Branchlets glabrous or puberulent to densely villous when young. Petiole 7-15 cm, grayish puberulent or glabrous; leaf blade 5-7(-9)-foliolate; petiolules 0.5-2.5(-3) cm, grayish puberulent or glabrous; leaflet blades oblong-lanceolate, oblong, oblong-oblanceolate, or oblong-obovate, 8-25(-30) × 3-8.5(-10.5) cm, abaxially glabrous, grayish tomentose on veins (sometimes only when young), or ± uniformly grayish tomentose or villous, base cuneate to broadly so, rounded, or slightly cordate, margin serrulate or crenulate-serrulate, apex abruptly acuminate; lateral veins in 13-25 pairs. Inflorescence puberulent or glabrous; peduncle 5-10 cm; thyrse cylindric, 15-35 cm, 2.5-12(-14) cm wide at base; branches 2-4(-6) cm, 5-10-flowered; pedicels 2-8 mm. Flowers fragrant. Calyx 3-7 mm, abaxially puberulent or glabrous. Petals 4, white, with yellow spots, subequal, oblong-obovate to oblong-oblanceolate, 8-14 × 3-5 mm, abaxially puberulent. Stamens 6 or 7, 18-30 mm; filament glabrous; anther 1-1.5 mm. Style glabrous or villous except at apex. Capsule yellowish brown, ovoid, globose, obovoid, or pyriform, 3-4.5 cm, densely dotted but smooth; pericarp 1-6 mm thick after drying. Seeds 1 or 2, brown, globose or subglobose, 2-3.5 cm in diam.; hilum white, occupying less than 1/3 to ca. 1/2 of seed. Flowering:April to May, fruiting: October.
Distribution: Growing in broad-leave forests at altitude 1,000-1,800m. Distributed in South Gansu, South Shaanxi, Henan, West Hubei and Northwest Hunan. Cultivated in Sichuan, Hebei, South Shanxi and etc. The medicinal materials are produced in Hanzhong and Ankang of Shaanxi, Xixia and Songxian of Henan, Hangzhou of Zhejiang, Yixing, Jingjiang and Liyang of Jiangsu.
Part Used: Medical part: dried or mature seeds.
Harvest & Processing: Harvested in autumn when fruits are mature, removed peels and sun-dried or dried under low temperature.
Chemistry: Triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, polyhydroxylated triterpenoid saponins (escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib, 21-O-tigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl acid, 21-O-angeloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl acid, 21, 22-O-ditigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl acid, 21-O-tigloyl-22-O-angeloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl acid, 21, 22-O-ditigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-methyl β-D-glucuronopyranosate, 21-O-tigloyl-22-O-angeloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-methyl β-D-glucuronopyranosate, 21-O-tigloyl-28-O-acetylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-methyl β-D-glucuronopyranosate and 21-O-angeloyl-28-O-acetylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-methyl β-D-glucuronopyranosate.). Mainly contains oleinic acid, glycerol tristearate and aescine.
Pharmacology: Anticancer, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiedematous activities, cholesterol-lowing; toxic.
Properties & Actions: Sweet, warm. Soothing the liver and regulating the qi, alleviating middle energizer and arresting pain.
Indications & Usage: Swelling and pain in the chest and hypochondrium, breasts, algomenorrhea, epigastric pain. Oral administration: decocting, 5-10g, or burned into powder then taken after mixed with wine. Use with caution in patients with qi-yin deficiency.
Examples      
1. Treat stomachache: buckeye 1, remove shell, crush and decoct, swallow the decoction.
2. Treat nine types of stomachache: buckeye burned ash, swallow with alcohol.
3. Treat breast lobule hyperplasia: buckeye 9-15g. Decoct in water and drink as tea.
References
Chinese Medicinal Material Images Database
efloras.org
Theplantlist
- Zhang N, Wei S, Cao S, Zhang Q, Kang N, Ding L and Qiu F (2020) Bioactive Triterpenoid Saponins From the Seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bge. var. chekiangensis. Front. Chem. 7:908.
- Chen J, Li W, Yang B, Guo X, Lee FS, Wang X. Determination of four major saponins in the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;596(2):273–280.
- Zhizhen ZHANG, Kazuo KOIKE, Zhonghua JIA, Tamotsu NIKAIDO, Dean GUO, Junhua ZHENG (1999), New Saponins from the Seeds of Aesculus chinensis; Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Volume 47, Issue 11, Pages 1515-1520

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