Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.
Dicranopteris linearis
Latin Name: Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.; Family Gleicheniaceae
Synonym Name: Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh.; Dicranopteris linearis var. linearis; Gleichenia ferruginea Blume; Gleichenia hermanni R. Br.; Gleichenia lanigera D. Don; Gleichenia linearis (Burm. f.) C.B. Clarke; Gleichenia rigida J. Sm.; Mertensia lessonii A. Rich.; Mertensia linearis (Burm. f.) Fritsch; Mertensia rufinervis Mart.; Platyzoma ferrugineum Desv.; Platyzoma latum Desv.; Polypodium lineare Burm. f.; Polypodium pedatum Houtt.; Pteris platylata Christenh.     
English Name: Dichotomy Forked Fern
Vietnamese name: Guột cứng, Tế, Vọt.
Description: A terrestrial thicket fern, up to 3 m tall, with dichotomously divided leaves. Rhizome several m long, up to 5 mm in diameter, creeping, brown, bearing septate, branched hairs. Leaves 2-3-furcate, with only the ultimate branches bearing pinnae, in addition to a pair of stipule-like pinnae (accessory branches) at the basis of each bifurcation, spaced 6-20 cm apart on rhizome; petiole erect, stout, 10-100 cm or longer, lustrous brownish to purpuraceous, glabrous; lamina of complex three-dimensional shape, 60-200 cm long, bearing hairs, especially near bases of the midribs and minute, oblong-obtuse brown glands along the veins; rachis sometimes very long, at the bifurcations with a dormant bud, with brown, branched hairs, glabrescent; pinnae narrowly lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid, asymmetrical at base, more reduced towards the acute to acuminate apex; ultimate segments linear, 18-40(-70) mm × 3-5 mm, confluent at the broadened base, apex obtuse or emarginate, glabrous. Sori superficial, in a median row on each side of the midrib, subcircular, 1 mm in diameter; sporangia without indusia. Spores trilete, tetrahedral with prolonged angles, somewhat wrinkled.
Distribution: Growing on highly-acid and red-earth hills, deserted slopes, forest margins or under Pinus massoniana forests. Distributed in Southwest China, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, South Gansu and etc.
Part Used: Medical part: young leaves, petiole and rhizome. Chinese name: young leaves and petiole: Mangqigu. Rhizome: Mangqigugen.
Harvest & Processing: Young leaves, petiole: harvested throughout the year, washed, sun-dried or used fresh. Rhizome: can be excavated throughout the year, washed, sun-dried or used fresh.
Chemistry: Whole plant contains protocathechuic acid, shikimic acid, afzelin, quercitrin, p-β-rutinosyloxystyrene, [1- 1-hydroxyethyl -4β-rutnosyloxybenzene] and β-sitosterol, etc.
Production and international trade: Production is only locally important in tropical Africa. Early in the 20th century, Malaysia exported vigorous petioles to India on a small scale. In Asia the use Dicranopteris linearis fibre is dying out as the ready-for-use fibres for matting and weaving have become very expensive.
D. linearis extracts have been reported to possess antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, and potential cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against various types of cancer.
Properties & Actions: Tender leaf, petiole: bitter, harsh, cool. Root stem: bitter, cool. Young leaves, petiole: eliminating stasis and relieving hemorrhage, clearing heat for disinhibiting urine, removing toxin for detumescence. Rhizome: clearing heat for inducing diuresis, eliminating stasis and relieving hemorrhage and suppressing cough.
Indications & Usage: Tender leaves and leaf stalk: profuse uterine bleeding, injuries from falls, difficulty and pain during micturition induced by pyretic stranguria, leucorrhea, infantile diarrhea, swelling pain induced by conjunctival congestion, traumatic hemorrhage, scalding and burns, bites by toxic insects. Rhizome: expansion due to wet heat, painful urination, damp itching in private parts, leucorrhea, traumatic hemorrhage, profuse uterine bleeding, coughing with lung heat. Young leaves, petiole: oral administration: decocting, 9-15g; or powdered. External application: appropriate amount, powdered for application; or fresh products smashed for application. Rhizome: oral administration: decocting, 15-30g; or powdered. External application: appropriate amount, fresh products smashed for application.
Examples:      
1. Hemorrhage due to knife wound: dry tender sprout of dichotomy forked fern under the sun, stir-fry, add rest burned coal, grind into fine powder, and apply externally to the affected lesions.
2. Private damp itching: dichotomy forked fern root 6-9g, burn ash, add groundsel paste (stew groundsel to paste), smear externally. First use groundsel, rose glorybower, flos lonicerae vine, decoct in water and wash.
References
Chinese Medicinal Material Images Database
efloras.org
Theplantlist
P. Suvarnalatha Devi, K.Rukmini, Vulasi Indrani, M. Nagalakshmi Devamma (2015), Antimicrobial Studies and Identification of Cellular Components of Dicranopteris Linearis from Tirumala Hills; International Journal of Pharma Research & Review; 4(8):13-17

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