Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.

Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. 
Gentiana crassicaulis
Latin Name: Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.; Family Gentianaceae
English Name: Thickstemen Gentian
Vietnamese name: Tần giao
Description: Perennials 25-40 cm tall. Roots to 30 × 2 cm. Stems ascending, stout, simple, glabrous. Basal leaves petiole 5-8 cm, membranous; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 12-20 × 4-6.5 cm, base narrowed, margin scabrous, apex acute, veins 5-7. Stem leaves 3-5 pairs, distinctly larger toward apex, sessile, spreading, and surrounding flower cluster; petiole to 3 cm, membranous, completely connate; leaf blade ovate-elliptic to ovate-triangular, 6-16 × 3-4.5(-7) cm, base obtuse to truncate, margin scabrous, apex acute to obtuse, veins 3-5. Inflorescences crowded, many-flowered terminal clusters, rarely also few-flowered axillary whorls. Flowers sessile. Calyx tube spathelike, 4-6 mm, membranous, split on 1 side, apex truncate; lobes 1-5, dentiform, 0.5-1 mm. Corolla blue-purple, base pale yellow base or sometimes white or dark green, urceolate, 2-2.2 cm; lobes ovate-triangular, 2.5-3.5 mm, margin entire, apex acute; plicae triangular, 1-1.5 mm, oblique, margin denticulate, apex acute. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube; filaments 6-8 mm; anthers narrowly ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 mm. Style 2-2.5 mm; stigma lobes oblong. Capsules sessile, ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.8-2 cm. Seeds light brown, ellipsoid, 1.2-1.5 mm. Flowering: July to August. Fruiting: September to October.
Distribution:Growing on grasslands or humid slopes. Mainly distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Tibet, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and etc. The medicinal materials are mainly produced in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet...
Part Used: Medical part: roots.
Chinese name: 粗茎秦艽, Cu jing qin jiao, Qinjiao.
Harvest & Processing: Excavated in spring and autumn, removed cauline leaf and fibrous root and soil, sundried, or heap up and sun-dried until the color become reddish yellow or daffodil yellow, spread out and sundried.
Chemistry: Mainly contains alkaloids. Iridoid glycosides (qinjiaosides). Gentiopicroside, loganic acid, swertiamarin, and sweroside.
Pharmacology: Anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular-system and blood-sugar affecting.
Properties & Actions: Bitter, pungent, neutral, non-toxic. Removing wind and damp, activating blood, relaxing muscle, clearing heat and inducing urination.
Indications & Usage: Rheumatic arthralgia, contracture of bones and muscles, jaundice, hemafecia, osteopyrexia, infantile malnutrition with fever, difficulty in micturition. Oral administration: decocting, 7.5-15g; made as medicinal liquor, or made as pills or powders. 
External application: powdered and scattered.
1. Treat wind invaded into yangming channel of hands and feet, deviation of the eye and mouth, aversion to wind and cold, contracture of four limbs: skunk bugbane, kudzu root, ural licorice (stir fried), peony, ginseng 0.5 liang each, gentian, angelica dahurica, divaricate saposhnikovia root, ramulus cinnamomi 3 qian each. Cut the above drugs into thin pieces. Take 1 liang for each dose and put into 2 cups of water, onion stalk with fibrous roots 3, 2 cun long, decoct until reduced to one cup, remove residues after slightly warmed, and swallow after meals. After swallowing the decoction, avoid wind coldness and lie down, the disease will be cured after mild perspiration.
2. Treat back pain radiated to chest: gentian 1.5 qian, rhizoma gastrodiae, incised notopterygium rhizome, orange peel, angelica, szechwan lovage rhizome ligusticum 1 qian each, stirred ural licorice 5 fen, fresh ginger 3 pieces, mulbrry twig 3 qian (stir-fried in liquor). Decoct in water and swallow.
3. Treat pain due to wind in meridians: notopterygium 1.5 qian, angelica 2 qian, szechwan lovage rhizome ligusticum 1 qian, prepared rhizome of rehmannia 3 qian, gentian, white peony root (stir-fried in liquor), heraclei radix 1.5 qian each.
Chinese Medicinal Material Images Database
Lv, T., Xu, M., Wang, D. et al. The chemical constituents from the roots of Gentiana crassicaulis and their inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediators NO and TNF-α. Nat. Prod. Bioprospect. 2, 217–221 (2012).

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