Juglans mandshurica Maximowicz

Juglans mandshurica Maximowicz
Juglans mandshurica
Photo Nikita Tiunov
Latin Name: Juglans mandshurica Maximowicz
Synonym Name: Juglans cathayensis Dode; Juglans cathayensis var. formosana (Hayata) A.M. Lu & R.H. Chang; Juglans collapsa Dode; Juglans draconis Dode; Juglans formosana Hayata; Juglans stenocarpa Maxim.
Family & Genus: Juglandaceae, Juglans
English Name: Manchurian Walnut, Manchurian walnut, Juglans cathayensis
Vietnamese name: Óc chó Manchurian
Chinese name: bark: Hetaoqiupi . Fruits or pericarp: Hetaoqiuguo. Kernel: Hetaoqiuguoren. 胡桃楸 hu tao qiu
Description: Trees or sometimes shrubs, to 25 m tall. Leaves 40-90 cm; petiole 5-23 cm; petiole and rachis sparsely to moderately glandular pubescent, occasionally densely so; leaflets (7 or)9-19, lateral ones sessile, blade elliptic to long elliptic or ovate-elliptic to long elliptic-lanceolate, 6-17 × 2-7.5 cm, abaxially tomentose or occasionally slightly pubescent, generally without glandular hairs, slightly to densely eglandular and glandular pubescent along midvein, base oblique, subcordate, margin serrate, rarely serrulate, apex acuminate; terminal petiolule 1-5 cm. Male spike 9-40 cm. Stamens 12-40. Fruiting spike with 5-10(-13) nuts. Nuts globose, ovoid, or ellipsoid, 3-7.5 × 3-5 cm; husk densely glandular pubescent, indehiscent; shell thick, rough, with 6-8 prominent ridges and deep pits and depressions. Flowering: April to May, fruiting: August to September.
Distribution: Growing in miscellaneous forests or ravine banks. Distributed in Northeast China, Hebei, Shanxi and etc. The medicinal materials are mainly produced in Northeast China and Hebei.
Cultivation: Grow in fertile, well-drained or moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Prefers slightly alkaline soil. Does not tolerate shade. Protect in winter when young. Plant out when no more than 60cm tall. Difficult to transplant due to a deep taproot.
Part Used: Medical part: bark, immature fruits, pericarp or kernel.
Harvest & Processing: Bark: collected in spring and autumn, picked off bark, and sun-dried. Immature fruits or pericarp: harvested nearly mature fruits from Sept.-Oct. Or cut off pericarp, and dried. Kernel: harvested when fruits mature, removed epicarp and endocarp (shuck), taken out kernel, and dried.
Chemistry: J. mandshurica is known to contain poly- phenols, naphthoquinones, naphthalenyl glucoside, tetral- ones, flavonoids, terpenoids, diarylheptanoids and galloyl glycosides Bark contains juglone, etc. Fruit contains: phenolic compounds 2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-1,3-propanediol. Leaves contains (11S)-11, 17-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-[7,0]- metacyclophane; (11R)-3,11,17-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-1,16-oxo-7,13-diphenyl-11-heptanol; (11R)-11,17-dihydroxy-3,4-methyl-enedioxy-[7,0]-metacyclophane; myricatomentogenin; (–)-regio- lone; 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone; juglone; caffeic  acid methyl ester (8), trans-coumaric acid methyl ester; ferulic acid; cinnamic acid; and 4-hydroxy- benzoic acid methyl ester
Pharmacology: Bark, pericarp: pain-killing, and anti-tumors. Fruit extract: anti-melanotic
Toxicity: The roots, nut husks, and leaves secrete a substance into the soil called juglone that is a respiratory inhibitor to some plants.
Properties & Actions: Bark: bitter, pungent, little cold. Immature fruit or peel: pungent, neutral, toxic. Seed nut: sweet, warm. Bark: clearing heat and eliminating dampness, purging liver fire for improving eyesight. Immature fruits or pericarp: promoting qi-flowing for suppressing pains, destroying parasites for suppressing itching. Kernel: astringing lung qi for calming panting, warming and tonifying kidney yang and moistening intestines for freeing bowel.
Indications & Usage: Bark: hygropyretic diarrhea and dysentery, yellow and sticky leukorrhea, swelling pain induced by conjunctival congestion, dacryorrhea due to head wind, bone tuberculosis. Immature fruits or fruit peel: pain in the gastric cavity and abdomen, psoriasis. Kernel: coughing with asthma due to pulmonasthenia, impotence and seminal emission, lumbago due to deficiency of the kidney, constipation. Bark: oral administration: decocting, 3-9g. External application: 9-15g, decocted for washing eyes. Immature fruits or pericarp: oral administration: made as medicinal liquor, 6-9g. External application: fresh products pound juice for unction. Kernel: oral administration: decocting, 3-9g; or made as pills or powders.
Examples      
1. Damp heat and leucorrhea: manchurian walnut bark, atractylodes 3 qian each. Decoct in water and swallow.
2. Acute conjunctivitis: manchurian walnut bark, bamboo leaves 3 qian each, China goldthread 1 qian. Decoct in water and swallow. Or take manchurian walnut bark 5 qian, decoct and wash eyes.
References
Chinese Medicinal Material Images Database
efloras.org
Theplantlist
shootgardening.co.uk
Kim JY, Lee EJ, Ahn Y, Park S, Kim SH, Oh SH. A chemical compound from fruit extract of Juglans mandshurica inhibits melanogenesis through p-ERK-associated MITF degradation. Phytomedicine. 2019;57:57–64. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2018.12.007
Yao DL, Zhang CH, Luo J, et al. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica. Arch Pharm Res. 2015;38(4):480–484. doi:10.1007/s12272-014-0398-1

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