Juncus effusus L.

Juncus effusus L. 
Juncus effusus
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Latin Name: Juncus effusus L.
Family & Genus: Juncaceae, Juncus
Synonym Name: Juncus bogotensis Kunth; Juncus bogotensis var. compactus (Hoppe ex Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Farw.; Juncus communis E.Mey.; Juncus communis var. effusus (L.) E.Mey.; Juncus communis var. parviflorus Rouy; Juncus conglomeratus var. effusus (L.) Kostel.; Juncus effusus var. compactus (Hoppe ex Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Lej. & Courtois; Juncus effusus var. conglomeratus (L.) Engelm.; Juncus effusus var. dasyanthelus K.Koch; Juncus effusus subsp. Effuses; Juncus effusus var. effuses; Juncus effusus var. elatus (Asch. & Graebn.) I.Grint.; Juncus effusus subsp. fistulosus (Guss.) K.Richt.; Juncus effusus var. fistulosus (Guss.) Buchenau; Juncus effusus var. longibracteatus A.Fern. & R.Fern.; Juncus effusus var. macranthelus K.Koch; Juncus effusus var. pauciflorus Lej. & Courtois; Juncus effusus var. prolifer Sond.; Juncus effusus f. prolifer (Sond.) Hegi; Juncus effusus var. subglomeratus DC.; Juncus effusus var. subglomeratus Lam. & DC.; Juncus effusus f. zebrinus (André) Hegi; Juncus fistulosus Guss.; Juncus laevis Wallr.; Juncus laevis var. diffusus Wallr.; Juncus lucens Burnham; Juncus luxurians Colenso; Juncus mauritianus Bojer; Juncus zebrinus André
English Name: Common Rush, Rush, Soft rush, Lamp rush, Pacific rush
Chinese name: medulla or whole plant: Dengxinicao, 灯心草 deng xin cao. Roots and rhizome: Dengxincaogen.
Vietnamese name: Bấc, Đăng tâm thảo, Tim bấc, Mạy póp-kham, Cỏ bấc đèn
Description: Plants perennial, densely tufted. Rhizome shortly creeping, thick. Stems terete, 25--90 cm or taller × 1--3(--4) mm, striate; pith continuous. Cataphylls closely embracing stem, reddish brown to chestnut brown, sheathlike, 2--22 cm. Inflorescences pseudolateral, densely to laxly many flowered; involucral bract erect, seemingly a continuation of stem, terete, 5--28 cm. Perianth segments usually pale brown, linear-lanceolate, 2--2.7 × ca. 0.8 mm, unequal with outer ones slightly longer than inner, apex acute. Stamens 3(or 6), ca. 2/3 as long as perianth; anthers 0.5--0.7 mm, slightly shorter than filaments. Ovary 3-loculed. Style very short. Capsule ovoid to oblong, slightly depressed or not, subequaling or slightly longer than perianth, 3-septate, apex obtuse. Seeds ovoid-oblong, 0.5--0.6 mm, reticulate. Flowering: June to July, fruiting: July to October.
Distribution: Growing on wet lands or marsh edges. Distributed in all parts of China. The medicinal materials are mainly produced in Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian...
Cultivation details: Easily grown in a moist soil, bog garden or shallow water. Prefers a heavy soil in sun or light shade.
Part Used: Medical part: medulla or whole plant, roots and rhizome.
Harvest & Processing: Medulla or whole plant: medulla: cut stalks in autumn, gashed the bark along the stalk, taken out medulla, wisped, sundried. Whole plant: cut in autumn, and sun-dried. Roots and rhizome: excavated in summer and autumn, removed stem, washed, and sun-dried.
Chemistry: Stem contains polysaccharides. Medulla contains fiber and fatty oil. Effusol, dehydroeffusol, juncusol, dehydrojuncusol, juncuenin B, dehydrojuncuenin B, juncuenin D, luteolin, luteolin 5-methyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-2-nonen-4-olide, Effususol A
Pharmacology: Antioxidative, antimicrobial, anxiolytic, sedative activities
Properties & Actions: Stem core or whole plant: taste sweet, tasteless, little cold in nature. root and root stem: taste sweet, cold in nature. Medulla or whole plant: disinhibiting diuresis and relieving strangury, clearing heart fire. Roots and rhizome: disinhibiting diuresis and relieving strangury and clearing heart-fire for calming the mental state.
Indications & Usage: Stem pulp or whole herb: used for stramgutia, edema, difficulty in micturition, jaundice with damp-heat pathogen, upset and insomnia, nocturnal fretfulness in infants, pharyngitis, sore mouth, and trauma. Root and rhizome: used for stramgutia, difficulty in micturition, jaundice with damp-heat pathogen, palpitation and uneasiness. Medulla or whole plant: oral administration: decocting, 1-3g, fresh products 15-30g; or made as pills or powders. Used for insomnia due to vexation, mixed with cinnabar. External application: appropriate amount, calcined preserving nature and powdered for dusting; or fresh products smashed for applying, wisped for scrubbing. Roots and rhizome: oral administration: decocting, 15-30g.
Examples      
Stem marrow or whole herb:
1. Diabetes: common rush 60g, beancurd 1 piece. Stew with water and eat.
2. Insomnia, dysphoria: common rush 18g. Decoct frequently drink as tea.
Root and rhizome:
1. Palpitation and restlessness: common rush root 30-90g. stew crystal sugar administer orally.
2. Malaria: common rush root 15g. Decoct in water, add a little white sugar 2-3 hours before onset, and swallow on empty stomach.
Other Uses
Stems are used in basket making, thatching, weaving mats... The stems can also be dried then twisted or braided into ropes for tying or binding. Stems can be peeled (except for a small spine which is left to keep them upright) and soaked in oil then used as a candle. A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper. The stems are harvested in late summer or autumn, they are split and cut into usable pieces and then soaked for 24 hours in clear water. They are then cooked for 2 hours with lye and beaten in a blender. The fibres make an off-white paper. When mixed with mulberry fibres they can be used for making stencil paper. The whole plant was formerly used as a strewing herb.
References
Chinese Medicinal Material Images Database
efloras.org
Theplantlist
Ishiuchi K, Kosuge Y, Hamagami H, et al. Chemical constituents isolated from Juncus effusus induce cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. J Nat Med. 2015;69(3):421–426. doi:10.1007/s11418-015-0898-4

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