Curculigo orchioides

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. i. 63. t. 16. (1788).

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.
Vietnamese name: Sâm cau, Ngải cau, Cồ nốc lan, Tiên mao
Chinese name: 仙茅 xian mao
English Name: Bethlehem star, Madam fate, Star flower.
Latin Name: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.
Synonym Name: Curculigo brevifolia Dryand. ex W.T.Aiton; Curculigo firma Kotschy & Peyr.; Curculigo malabarica Wight; Curculigo orchioides var. minor Benth.; Curculigo pauciflora Zipp. ex Span.; Curculigo petiolata Royle; Curculigo stans Labill.; Franquevillea major Zoll. ex Kurz; Gethyllis acaulis Blanco; Hypoxis dulcis Steud. ex Baker; Hypoxis minor Seem.; Hypoxis orchioides (Gaertn.) Kurz
Family: Hypoxidaceae
Description: Rhizomes erect, subcylindric, ca. 10 × 1 cm. Leaves sessile or shortly petiolate; leaf blade lanceolate to linear, usually 10-45(-90) × 0.5-2.5 cm, laxly pilose or glabrous, base tapering, apex narrowly acuminate. Flowering stems nearly enclosed in base of sheathing petiole, 6-7 cm, pilose; bracts lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm, margin ciliate. Inflorescences umbel-like racemes, 4-6-flowered. Pedicel ca. 2 mm. Perianth yellow; segments oblong-lanceolate, 8-12 × 2.5-3 mm, outer ones sometimes abaxially laxly pilose. Stamens ca. 1/2 as long as perianth segments; filament 1.5-2.5 mm; anther 2-4 mm. Ovary narrowly oblong, to 7.5 mm, pilose. Stigma lobes longer than style. Berry subfusiform, 1.2-1.5 × ca. 0.6 cm; beak ca. 2.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr-Sep.
Distribution: It is found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. In Vietnam: Lao Cai, Hà Tây, Hoà Bình, Hải Dương, Nghệ An, Quảng Trị, Thừa Thiên Huế, Kon Tum
Ecological: Plants grow naturally on grassy hills, scrublands, along streams and rock niches.
- Phenolic glucosides: orchiosides A and B
- Cycloartane glycosides from the rhizomes: 3beta-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-12R,16beta-dihydroxy-9,19-cyclol- anostan-24-one; 12alpha,16beta- dihydroxy-3beta-[(O-R-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-beta-D-glucopyrano- syl)oxy]-9,19-cyclolanostan-24-one; 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)-beta-D-glucopy- ranosyl)oxy]-12alpha,16beta-dihydroxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-24-one.; 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->6)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-12alpha,16beta-dihydroxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-24- one.; 3alpha-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-1-2alpha,16beta-dihydroxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-24-one.; 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]- 12alpha,16beta-dihydroxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-24-one
Pharmacology: Compounds cycloartane glycosides from the rhizomes showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 9.0 and 1.8 μM, respectively. The cancer cell growth inhibition of 1a was also examined using a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines in the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research.
- In Viet Nam: Kidney tonic, high blood pressure, numbness, diarrhea, arousal (Drinking roots).
- Its rhizomes have been used in traditional medicines in tonics and for the treatment of asthma and hyperpiesia.
- Gupta M, Achari B, Pal BC. Glucosides from Curculigo orchioides.Phytochemistry. 2005 Mar;66(6):659-63.
- Akihito Yokosuka, Koji Sato, Takao Yamori, Yoshihiro Mimaki; Triterpene Glycosides from Curculigo orchioides and Their Cytotoxic Activity; J. Nat. Prod. 2010, 73, 6, 1102-1106

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