Animal Derivatives

3.4 Animal Derivatives
Animal Derivatives are also referred to as the biologics in literatures. They are invariably categorized into two groups, namely:
(a) Prepared from the blood of animals: Such as: serum, antitoxins and globulins. These are usually obtained by the aid of certain specific treatment particularly carved to enhance the strength of desired constituents.
(b) Prepared from inoculation of suitable culture medium: For instance: vaccines, toxins, tuberculins collectively termed as the ‘microbial products’. These products afford protection against a host of causative pathogenic microorganisms. They are produced by inoculating an appropriate culture medium that may consist of living tissue along the right pathogen. The resulting product is purified suitably, and may be used as a ‘drug’.
In conclusion, it may be emphasised that even in developed countries a variety of natural products enjoy their well-deserved recognition in the therapeutic arsenal. However, their actual and precise method of production is more or less an extremely individualized aspect. Many advanced countries like United States, Germany, France. Great Britain and most parts of Europe, where medical practice is found to be oriented toward the utilisation of preferred-single chemical entities, a major protion of natural drugs are treated to afford either one or more active components, such as:
Ginsengoside Rg1 from : Ginseng;
Morphine from : Opium;
Reserpine from : Rauwolfia;
Taxol from : Pacific Yew;
Ergotamine from : Ergot;
Vincristine & Vinblastine from : Catharanthus;
Digoxin from : Digitalis;
Ginkgolide–A from : Ginkgo;
Artemisinin from : Qinghaosu, etc.
It is worthwhile to state that in technologically-advanced nation like China, India, Korea, Japan make use of a good number of herbal medicines having multicomponent entities with proven and advantageous therapeutic values. Mostly such preparations are available in the form of film coated tablets, capsules, syrups, powdered mixtures and dispensed under modern packing norms. Of course, there is a visible-upward tendency to adopt these preparations, from reputed manufactures in the Western World for the cure of a number of human diseases.
It is pertinent to mention here that the age-old practice of using hydroalcoholic tinctures and fluid-extracts have become more or less obsolete nowadays.
Various official compendia-like USP, NF, BP, Eur. P, Int. P, IP have duly incorporated the standards of some purified natural products; and hence, the quality in such cases may not be a significant concern at all.

REFERENCES
Ashutosh Kar (2003), Pharmacognosy and Pharmaco biotechnology, 2nd Edition
‘Handbook of Medicinal Herbs’ (2001), J.A. Duke, CRC-Press, London, 1st Edn.
William Charles Evans (2002), Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy 15th Edition by: Trease, Bailliere Tindall; Evans.
Ramstad (1956), E., ‘Modern Pharmacognosy’, McGraw Hill, London.

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