Rutin-Synonyms Melin; Phytomelin; Eldrin; Ilixanthin; Sophorin; Globularicitrin; Paliuroside; Osyritrin; Osyritin; Myrticolorin; Violaquercitrin; Birutan; Rutabion; Rutozyd; Tanrutin

2.4.2.1 Rutin
Synonyms Melin; Phytomelin; Eldrin; Ilixanthin; Sophorin; Globularicitrin; Paliuroside; Osyritrin; Osyritin; Myrticolorin; Violaquercitrin; Birutan; Rutabion; Rutozyd; Tanrutin.
Biological Source Rutin is found in many plants, especially the buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; family: Polygonaceae); in forsythia [Forsythia suspensa (Thunb).) Vahl ver. Fortunei (Lindl). Rehd., family Oleaceae]; in hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata Sieb., family: Saxifragaceae); in pansies (Viola sp. Violaceae); from leaves of Eucalyptus macroryncha F.v. Muell., family : Myrtacea); in Fagopyrum tartaricum Gaertn: family: Polygonaceae); in Ruta graveolens L., (family: Rutaceae); in buds of Sophora japonica L., (family: Leguminoseae); in fresh leaves of tobacco plants, Nicotiana tabacum L., (family : Solanaceae); in cotton seed Gossypium hirsutum;(family Malvaceae); in Viola tricolor, (family : Violaceae).
Geographical Source The various plants like eucalyptus, tobacco, and cotton grow abundantly in tropical countries like India, Africa, Ceylon and United Stated, Australia and China.
Preparation Based on experimental evidences it has been observed that the glycoside content in plants declines sharply as they mature; however, the highest yields are usually obtained from the
buckwheat leaves and flowers as soon as the plants attain the blossom-stage.
The dried and ground plant material (say 150 g) is extracted with two successive quantities (2 ×200 ml) of ethanol (80% v/v). The resulting filtered hydro-alcoholic extract is carefully evaporated under vaccum in a rotary evaporator till it reaches upto 50-60 ml. The content of the flask is mixed
with an equal volume of ether and the ethereal layer is separated. The aqueous layer is once again extracted with the same volume of ether and the ethereal layer separated. Both the ethereal layers are discarded and the aqueous layer is evaporated under reduced pressure to 10 ml. Keep the concentrated residual liquid in a refrigerator (0-5°C) overnight when a solid crystalline substance appears. Separate
it from the mother liquor. The crude rutin, thus obtained may be further purified by Column Chromatography, using magnesium silicate as an adsorbent and ethanol as an eluant.
Description It has a pale yellow crystalline needle like apprearance. It is practically insoluble in water, ether, petroleum ether and chloroform. It is fairly soluble in ethanol and aceto
Chemical Structure The structure of rutin (or 5, 7, 3’, 4’ tetrahydroxy flavonol -3- rhamnoglucoside) is given below:

Rutin on refluxing with dilute mineral acid (200 ml of 0.1N H2SO4 + 1 g rutin) for 90 minutes gives rise to the aglycone known as quercetin plus the corresponding sugars.
Chemical Tests
1. It gives a distinct yellow precipitate with basic lead acetate.
2. It yields a greenish brown colour with ferric chloride.
3. It produces a silver mirror with ammonical silver nitrate solution (Tollen’s Reagent)
Uses
1. Rutin is used to decrease the capillary fragility (i.e., to enhance the tensile strength of capillary walls), reduce capillary permeability by tissue injury, and minimise the destruction of epinephrine in body tissues.
2. It has been mostly used in certain disease condition to reduce capillary bleeding promptly.
3. It is found to be useful in the treatment of retinal harmorrhages.

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