Apiin-Apioside, Apigenin 7-apiosyglucoside

2.4.1.1 Apiin
Synonyms Apioside, Apigenin 7-apiosyglucoside.
Biological Source Apiin usually occurs in the seeds and leaves of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm, and Apium petroselinum Linn., known as parsley, and also in Apium graveolens L., and Anthemis nobilis. L, called as celery, family Umbelliferae. It has also been found to be present in the ray florets of Marticaria chamomilla Linn., and some other ray florets belonging to the family Compositae.
Geographical Source The fruits are grown in Persia, Greece, Northwest Himalaya and Europe.
Description It is a very small fruit, almost globular in shape. The taste is at first like anise, but afterwards bitter. The colour is like anise, but generally faint. It occurs as colourless needles.
Chemical Constituents The structure of apiin is given below:


Apiin is neither hydrolysed by the enzyme emulsin, nor by yeast or yeast extract. However, it undergoes hydrolysis in an acidic medium to yield glucose, apiose (pentose sugar) and apigenin (aglycone) which is 4, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone.

Apiin when treated with dilute sulphuric acid (0.5 to 1%) undegoes cleavage only at apiose moiety thereby giving rise to 7- glucoapigenin as shown below:

 
Chemical Tests
1. It gives a yellow precipitate with basic lead acetate.
2. It produces a reddish brown colour with FeCl3.
3. It gives an intense yellow colour with NH4OH solution
4. It yields a pale yellow colour with NaOH solution.

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