Immature bitter orange (Zhishi)-Citrus aurantium-Citrus sinensis-Fructus Aurantii immaturus

Immature bitter orange (Zhishi)



Citrus aurantium L.; 2. Citrus sinensis Osbeck
Citrus aurantium L
Pharmaceutical Name: Fructus Aurantii immaturus.
Botanical Name: 1. Citrus aurantium L.; 2. Citrus sinensis Osbeck
Common Name: Immature bitter orange fruit.
Source of Earliest Record: Shennong Bencao Jing
Part Used & Method for Pharmaceutical Preparations: The immature fruit is gathered in July or August. The fruit is halved and dried in the sun, cleaned, soaked in water overnight, cut into slices and dried again.
Properties & Taste: Bitter, pungent and slightly cold.
Meridians: Spleen, stomach and large intestine.
Functions: 1. To disperse stagnant qi and relieve food retention; 2. To resolve phlegm and relieve fullness sensation.
Indications & Combinations:
1. Retention of food manifested as epigastric and abdominal distension and fullness and belching with foul odor. Immature bitter orange (Zhishi) is used with Hawthorn fruit (Shanzha), Germinated barley (Maiya) and Medicated leaven (Shenqu).
2. Abdominal distension, fullness and constipation. Immature bitter orange (Zhishi) is used with Magnolia bark (Houpo) and Rhubarb (Dahuang).
3. Weakness of the spleen and stomach in transporting and transforming manifested as epigastric and abdominal distension and fullness after meals. Immature bitter orange (Zhishi) is used with White atractylodes (Baizhu) in the formula Zhi Zhu Wan.
4. Damp-heat stagnating in the intestines manifested as dysentery, tenesmus and abdominal pain. Immature bitter orange (Zhishi) is used with Rhubarb (Dahuang), Coptis root (Huanglian) and Scutellaria root (Huangqin) in the formula Zhishi Daozhi Wan.
5. Turbid phlegm blocking circulation of qi in the chest manifested as stifling sensation and pain in the chest, epigastric fullness and nausea. Immature bitter orange (Zhishi) is used Macrostem onion (Xiebai), Cinnamon twigs (Guizhi) and Trichosanthes fruit (Gualou) in the formula Zhishi Xiebai Guizhi Tang.
6. Prolapse of the uterus, rectum and stomach. Immature bitter orange (Zhishi) is used with White atractylodes (Baizhu) and Astragalus root (Huangqi).
Dosage: 3-10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.
Cautions & Contraindications:
1. Used with caution in patients with hypofunction of the Spleen and Stomach.
2. Contraindicated during pregnancy.

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