Carpesium abrotanoides

Carpesium abrotanoides L., Sp. Pl. 2: 860 (1753).

Carpesium abrotanoides
(Carpesium abrotanoides L.; Photo and Věra Svobodová)
Latin Name: Carpesium abrotanoides L.
Family & Genus: Asteraceae, Carpesium
Synonym Name: Amphirhapis wightiana Hook.f.; Carpesium abrotanoides var. abrotanoides; Carpesium abrotanoides var. thunbergianum (Siebold & Zucc.) Makino; Carpesium racemosum Wall.; Carpesium thunbergianum Siebold & Zucc.; Carpesium wulfenianum Schreb. ex DC.; Carpesium wulfenianum Bertol.
English Name: Carpesium, Common Carpesium, Pig's Head
Chinese Name: 天名精 tian ming jing
Vietnamese Name: Thiên danh tinh, Cẩu nhi thái
Description: Herbs, perennial. Stems 50-100 cm tall, stout, terete, leafy, pubescent apically, much branched. Lower cauline leaves thin, broadly elliptic to oblong, 20-28 × 8.5-15 cm, gland-dotted abaxially, shortly pubescent on both surfaces, narrowed at base into a broadly winged petiole, margin irregularly mucronulate-dentate, apex obtuse to acute; upper leaves sessile, oblong, gradually smaller, apex acute. Capitula many, 6-8 mm wide, sessile, spicately arranged, usually without bracts, deflexed in anthesis. Involucre campanulate-globose; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer ones shortest, ovate, acuminate, shortly pubescent, scarious-leathery at base, herbaceous toward apex, median and inner oblong, rounded at apex. Florets 130-300; corolla of marginal florets cylindric, ca. 1.5 mm; corolla of disk florets ca. 2.5 mm. Achenes ca. 3.5 mm, beak ca. 0.7 mm. Flowering: June to August; fruiting: September to October.
Ecological: Roadsides, grassy slopes, thickets, forest margins, streamsides; below 2800 (-3400) m.
Distribution: Distributed in all parts of China. The medicinal materials are produced in most parts of China. Found in  Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Vietnam; SW Asia (Caucasus, Iran), Europe.
Part Used: Medical part: entire plant and fruits. Chinese name: entire plant: Tianmingjing; fruits: Heshi.
Harvest & Processing: Entire plant: collected from July and August, well washed, used fresh, or sun-dried. Fruit: collected in September and November when fruits mature, harvested the aboveground parts, sundried, threshed down fruits and well washed.
- Entire plant and fruits contain sesquialterpene lactones, such as carabrone and carpesialactone.
- Vomifoliol, 2-Desoxy-4-epi-pulchellin , 8-epi-Confertin, 1-epi-Inuviscolide, Telekin, Isotelekin, 4 (15)-β-Epoxyisotelekin, Carabrone, Carabrol, and 3- Deuteriomethyl-5-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, Granilin. Sesquiterpene lactones: 4 alpha,5 alpha-epoxy-10 alpha,14-dihydro-inuviscolide, 2,3-dihydroaromomaticin, carpesiolin, carabrone, carabrol, telekin, ivalin  and 11,13-didehydroivaxillin.
- Anti-bacteria.
- In vitro cytotoxicity testing was carried out against L1210, A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF-498 and HCT-15 tumor cell lines. Sesquiterpene lactone compounds (4 alpha,5 alpha-epoxy-10 alpha,14-dihydro-inuviscolide, 2,3-dihydroaromomaticin, carpesiolin, carabrone, carabrol, telekin, ivalin and 11,13-didehydroivaxillin) showed significant cytotoxic activity (ED50 values, < 20 microM) against all tumor call lines tested. Among these compounds, 4 alpha, 5 alpha-epoxy-10 alpha, 14-dihydro-inuviscolide, 2,3-dihydroaromomaticin, telekin and ivalin showed cytotoxic activity (ED50, < 10 microM) comparable to that of cisplatin.
Properties & Actions: Tianminjing: bitter, pungent, cold. Heshi: bitter, pungent, neutral, mild-toxic. Tianmingjing: clearing heat, removing phlegm, detoxifying, expelling parasites, dissipating stasis, arresting bleeding. Heshi: expelling parasites and dissipating stasis.
Indications & Usage: Tianmingjing: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, acute and chronic infantile convulsions, toothache, furunculosis and swelling, hemorrhoids and fistula, itchy skin eruptions, venomous snake bite, parasitic malnutrition, intestinal obstruction caused by blood, hematemesis, non-traumatic hemorrhage, bloody stranguria, hemorrhage caused by trauma. Common carpesium fruit: ascariasis, enerobiasis. Tianmingjing: oral administration: decocting, 9-15g; or powdered, 3-6g; or extracted juice, or made as pills or powders. External: appropriate amount, triturated for application; or decocted for fumigating and gargling. Heshi: oral administration: usually made as pills or powders; prepared decoction, 5-10g.
1. Treat fishbone caught in throat: use carpesium and european verbena 1 bundle each (remove root), salted and dried plum meat 1, alumbre 1 qian. Pestle and prepare pills, swallow with cotton wrap, the fishbone will soften spontaneously.
2. Treat malignant boil: pestle common carpesium and collect juice, swallow, 2-3 times a day.
3. Treat odontia: decoct common carpesium fruit and rice vinegar, and gargle.
- Liu PA,  Liu M,  Pan WW,  He WJ,  Peng S,  Zhou XJ; Study on Chemical Constituents from Carpesium abrotanoides. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 01 Dec 2014, 37(12):2213-2215
- MasaoMaruyama, FumikoShibata; Stereochemistry of granilin isolated from Carpesium abrotanoides; Phytochemistry Volume 14, Issue 10, October 1975, Pages 2247-2248
- Lee J, Min B, Lee S, Na M, Kwon B, Lee C, Kim Y, Bae K.; Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Carpesium abrotanoides. Planta Med. 2002 Aug;68(8):745-7.

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